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Full text of "Reminiscences of the long ago : being a historical sketch of the early settlement of Bethlehem, now Carmel and vicinity with an account of the Indians and of the doings and makeshifts of the early pioneers who have passed away with a partial list of their names and a list of the dead of Bethlehem-Carmel, an account of merchandising and other branches of business, accidents, suicides, shootings, fires, etc. up to l9ll"

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3 1833 02301 6600 


^7 INA WARREN, son of Daniel and Mary Warren, 
^■^ was born in North Carolina, September 9, 1831; 
died April 1, 1911, being- at his death seventy-nine 
years, six months and twenty-one days old. His 
parents moved to Wayne County, Indiana, when he 
was quite young. Shortly afterward they moved to 
this community where the deceased was reared, 
educated and lived all his life. 

In the year of 1854, he became acquainted with 
Isabelle Thomas and in 1855 they were married. To 
this union were born six children, three of whom died 
when quite young-. Those living- are Mrs. Thomas J. 
Newkirk and Will W. Warren, of Chicag-o, and Mrs. 
Lizzie Hodg-ins, of Carmel. 

In 1862 he became converted to the Christian 
relig-ion, but did not join the M. E. Church until 1868, 
of which he remained a loyal member until death. 

He leaves a wife, three children, six g^rand- 
children, three sisters and one brother, and many 
other relatives and friends to mourn their loss. 

Remjnis^ence^s oj^^ A^o 



The Early Settlement of Bethlehem, 
now Carmel and Vicinity 


And of The Doings and Makeshifts of the Early 
Pioneers Who have passed away with a 
Partial List of Their Names 



An Account of Merchandising and Other Branches of Business 
Accidents, Suicides, Shootings, Fires, Etc. np to 1911 




Immigration and Settlement 

TT IS with some reluctance that I undertake to 
■^ write a history, not beingf a Bidj^ath, Bancroft, 
or a Pliny, but I will try to make it truthful and ask 
the reader to excuse any incong^ruities of composition, 
believing" that at a future time this record of the past 
will be of some benefit, being" written by one who is 
seventy-nine years old and has voted for president 
fifteen times, scoring" eleven, and lived with the 
history of our country throug"h three wars and five 

As my parents were the first white settlers in this 
immediate vicinity, and Daniel Warren, Sr. , my father, 
the founder of Bethlehem, now Carmel, I will first 
give a little sketch of their history, immigration, and 
settlement here. 

Daniel Warren, Sr., was born in the year 1791 and 
was of Eng"lish descent. He was about eig"ht years old 
when General Washing"ton died and could remember 
the universal sorrow, and of hearing" such expressions 
as "I suppose General George Washington is dead." 
In his younger days he was a hatter in North Carolina 
and worked, not in "Beard's Hatter Shop," but in old 
Salem. He was a son of Joseph Warren, who fell 
pierced in the breast by a bullet in battle with the 
British, one month and nineteen days after they 


burned the Capitol at Washing-ton. He, Daniel War- 
ren, was only prevented by sickness from participating- 
in the battle of "Perry's Victory" in Lake Erie, near 

Grandfather Warren was at home on furloug-h, and 

the day arrived for him to start back to the army, to 

return never more; but, 

Soldier, rest, thy warfare o'er; 

Sleep the sleep that knows no waking, 

Till the resurrection morn. 

My mother's maiden name was Mary Hoover. She 
was born about 1795. Her father, Jonas Hoover, and 
a relative, Rudolph Weymire, who was a soldier in 
the battle of Detting-en in 1743, immig-rated from 
Hanover, Germany, sometime after the above date. 

My parents immig-rated from North Carolina in 
1831, when Andrew Jackson was president, and 
Napoleon was sleeping- on St. Helena. They loaded 
their wag-on for the new country, Indiana, the then 
"Par West," putting- in among-st other thing's a box of 
g-ing-er cakes of home manufacture, and a little tin 
trunk filled with "Hard Money" with which to buy 
land; nothing- but g-old or silver would be received by 
the g-overnment for land. 

They left their married daug-hter, Ruth, never 
expecting to see her ag-ain, the distance being- almost 
as far then as around the world now. But in a few 
years a wag-on arrived at our house, and the occupants 
sent some one in who asked mother if she would like 


to see Ruth. She said "Yes, but I never expect to." 
He told her to gfo out to the wagfon if she wanted to 
see her — they had immigrated. 

Emigrants from North Carolina and other parts 
came occasionally. One day a covered wag'on drove 
up to our house; they were folks from North Carolina, 
and some relation to my mother. After a little while 
their little flaxen haired girl approached rather shyly 
and handed me a large red streaked apple, and I 
expect the very stem was chewed up. Apples were 
not often seen, there being- but one orchard in the 
vicinity of seedling trees, planted by the Indians. 
What became of that little girl? Long since departed, 
but one of her sons is now a prominent business man 
on West Main Cross Street, Carmel. 

The little tin trunk, spoken of before, had a little 
padlock and was kept locked, so no one could steal 
their cash, and when camping- it would sometimes be 
left unguarded in the wagon, not thinking anyone 
would be hog enoug-h to carry off the whole trunk 
bodily. Nowadays there mig-ht be some persons that 

A little incident happened at the ferry over the 
Ohio River at Gallipolis. Two ferries were running- 
in opposition; one offered to take us over for a little 
less, then the other underbid him, and so on until one 
said, "Come on with me and I will take you over for 
nothing." Then the other, not to be outdone, said, 
"Come with me and I will take you over for nothing 


and treat to a pint of whisky." I do not remember 
hearing- my father say which one he went with. We 
passed througfh Chillicothe, Ohio, and at Richmond, 
Indiana, called upon David Hoover, my mother's rela- 
tive, who laid out the city and gave it its name. 

My father, Daniel Warren, entered one hundred 
and sixty acres of land, cornering- where now is the 
southwest corner of Main and Main Cross Streets of 
Carmel. The patent deed had the sig-nature of Andrew 
Jackson, then president. 

There were yet some Indians, bears, panthers and 
wolves and deer galore, wild turkeys, pheasants, 
rattle snakes, and squirrels in g^reat abundance- 
When burning- brush at night, droves of deer, attract- 
ed by the lig-ht, would come near enough for their 
eyes to be seen. About where Edmund Graves' house 
now stands, my brother saw one lying- in a tree top, 
and when he threw a stick at it, fifteen jumped up and 
ran flopping their tails. When a dog- got after one 
he would often be thwarted by a fence, the deer mak- 
ing it at one bound. 

The Rail Pen 

The first thing- to do after landing in the then 
solid wilderness, on the quarter section now the farm 
of Jonathan Johnson, was to cut down an oak tree 
and split enough rails to make a rail pen, and boards 
to cover it. A fire-place was left on one side and a 
"back-log" rolled in place, and a door on another 


side, to which a sheet was hangfed up for a shutter. 
This was the first house! Look at it — and it was 
about the second day of blustery March. 

They lived in this house for six weeks, three of 
which mother and the children were left alone while 
father was on the hunt of his horses, which had 
estra5'^ed, and there were the Indians and wild animals, 
and no white neig"hbors near. Droves of hung-ry 
wolves would come up of nigfhts with their dismal 
howling-. My father later kept dry brush heaps in 
stock, so that when the wolves got too fresh he could 
set fire to one, and the lig"ht would scare them away 
for that nig-ht. 

They had to have pens and shut the sheep and 
hogs up of nig-hts to secure them from the wolves. 
One nigfht the wolves were howling-, and they had for- 
g-otten to shut the hog"s up, and my two elder brothers 
went in the dark to shut them up. 

A Field of the Dead 

At another time they neg^lected to put the sheep 
in the fold, and in the morning- "A field of the dead 
rushed red on their sig-ht, and the lambs and the sheep 
were scattered in the fig-ht." A long- pasture field was 
strewn with dead sheep from one end to the other, the 
wolves only sucking- the blood from their throats. 

The Log Cabin 

After living- in the rail pen six weeks our folks 
set about building- a house. They made no cement 


foundation, had no lumber or hardware bill to pay, 
no brick for chimney, no plastering-, painting- or 
papering-; but rocks for corner stones, on which they 
built up with beech log-s, scalped a little on two sides 
and notched down at the corners. Round poles made 
the joists and rafters, and clap-boards, split boards 
about four feet long, for the roof and ceiling-. The 
boards on the roof were held in place by poles, and 
the boards were laid loose on the joists. 

The cracks were "dobbed" with clay which, after 
drying-, would crack and sometimes pieces would g-et 
knocked out, and here we see the orig-in of the phrase 
"knocking- the dobbin" out of anyone. The floor was 
made of "puncheons," split slabs with the edg-es 
trimmed to fit tog"ether. The chimney was made of 
split sticks covered with clay, and the hearth and 
back wall of clay. The stairway was a ladder. 

The doors were made of split boards with wooden 
hing-es and latch, having a string to it, and passed to 
the outside through a hole in the door, pulling the 
string would unlatch the door and by pulling the 
string inside your door was fastened from the outside. 
Here we see the origin of the expression of hospitality 
by saying "the latch string will be out." 

A few holes were bored and wooden pegs driven 
in for wardrobe hooks, and there was the house ready 
to move into. After a few years my father built a 
more pretentious house, the present old one on the 
Jonathan Johnson farm. The old log cabin was sold 
and moved to town for a stable and has decayed, ex- 
cept a small piece preserved by the writer. 


In the early days of the first settlement there 
were no pike roads, steam or electric roads, locomo- 
tives, teleg-raph, telephone, wireless, express office, 
bank, post office, rural routes, postage stamps, en- 
velopes, postal and post cards, money orders, steel 
pens, matches, kerosene, gfasoline, electric lig-hting- 
or power, natural or artificial g-as, cement walks or 
building- blocks, buggies, carriages, tile, bicycles, 
motorcycles, autos, taxicabs, tricycles, ice cream, 
horse clippers, safety razors, daily papers, Sunday 
papers, breach loaders, chloroform, ether, X-rays, 
phonographs, incubators, manure spreaders, wind 
mills, clover hullers, cultivators, hay rakes, corn 
planters, corn shredders, sowing machines, sewing 
machines, corn shockers, silos, mowing machines, 
reapers, self binders, hay and straw balers, road 
scrappers, organs, pianos, wire, wire screens, sausage 
grinders, canned goods, lawn mowers, cigarettes, 
moving pictures, high schools, factories, galvanized 
iron, wire nails, gimlet pointed screws, corn shellers, 
type writters, ratchet braces, patent screw drivers, 
kinetoscopes, rubber tires, sacharine, glucose, Japan 
dryer, eight hour law, aeroplanes, emery wheels, car- 
borundum, bar sheer plows, systematic school books, 
acetylane gas, cylinder presses, cook stoves, heating 
stoves, star candles, carpet sweepers, knitting ma- 
chines, cameras, photographs, fountain pens, gun 
cotton, smokeless powder, dynamite, nitroglycerine, 


traction or gasoline eng-ines, threshing- machines, 
straw stackers, separators, oil lamps, glass lanterns, 
cream separators, creameries, sorg^hum, rubber shoes, 
and various other thing's. 

If the pioneers had microbes, they did not know 
it. They had no tuberculosis, it was only consump- 
tion; had no hosiery, only stocking-s and socks; no 
cemeteries, only g^raveyards; no churches, only meet- 
ing" houses, and after musical instruments came, no 
violins, only fiddles. The towns had no restaurants, 
they were only eating houses. 


For mail, the pioneers went to Westfield after the 
office was established there. Postage rates was ac- 
cording to distance, and letters limited to half an 
ounce, and to but one or two sheets of paper. For 
long distances the rate was twenty-five cents, and 
you could prepay or not, as you preferred. For steel 
pens they used goose quills, which were staple articles 
of trade at the store, when there was one, and they 
brought three cents per dozen in goods. For ink they 
boiled a little maple bark, to which was added a 
small lump of copperas, and they had a jet black ink. 

Lanterns were made of tin, perforated with small 
holes to let a little stray light through, and with a 
door on one side, and had a short tube inside to place 
a bit of candle. Next came an improvement, the four 
sides were of glass, held together at the corners by 
strips of tin. Then came lard oil and glass flue, and 
lastly the kerosene article now in use. 


It is not necessary to mention the big- kettles of 
whole grain lye hominy, but will here tell how they 
made a mortar to crack corn to make "small hominy" 
before the advent of the first grist mill. A cut about 
two feet long" from a beech log would be set up on 
end, live coals of fire placed in the center of the top, 
on which bits of wood were placed, and the fire kept 
burning" till a round bottomed cavity was burned out, 
watching" to see that it was not burning" too near the 
edges. Then this black cavity was dug" and scooped 
out to remove the charred part, and it was finished. 
Then for a pestle or "hominy beater" they split a 
stick and put the flat part of the iron wedg"e in the 
opening" and fastened it by lashing tig"htly. 

Joseph Green made combs of cows' horns, and 
Jacob Green, Sr., and Nathan Hawkins, cooperage, 
iron bound well buckets which were staple articles, 
all of which could be bartered for. 

Sugar Making 

They made their maple sugar and molasses, and 
if camps were not too far apart, when one "stirred 
off" they sent for the neighboring camp people to 
come and eat wax. Sometimes when out of maple 
molasses, they would boil pumpkin juice to a mo- 
lasses. Children would make wooden spoons for wax, 
in the winter to have them ready. 

Oh, there is yet an indescribable charm to the 
very name of the "sugar camp" where we would lean 
against, or sit on a mossy log, or climb a tall "sap- 


pling-" and eat our big- ball of wax. Eating- much wax 
would g-ive one an appetite for something salty, and 
we would take to the camp in the morning- some slices 
of regular, Simon pure, dyed in the wool, home cured 
ham, bread and eggs, and for dinner fry the eg-gs in 
the ham gravy, or "sop," make spice wood tea by 
boiling- sugar-water till sweet enoug-h, have warm 
maple molasses, then eat our dinner in the wildwood, 
a big- log- being our table. A true picture, but never 
to be realized ag-ain as "Our fug-itive years are all 
hastening away." 

I will tell here what a predicament our folks were 
in at one sug-ar making- time. They cooked on the 
fire-place, and, in order to save the sug-ar water, had 
taken many of the cooking- utensils to the camp, and 
an itenerant preacher came. Mother hardly knew 
how to do; and just to think, that he was a preacher! 
She apolog-ized, but in after years she concluded that 
preachers are about like other people. 

Home-Made Clothing 

The pioneers made their own clothing- of wool 
from the sheep's back, and flax from the flax patch. 
The wool was sheared, washed, picked, carded, spun, 
colored and wove up into cloth. They even had but- 
ton moulds and cast their buttons of pewter, sticking- 
a little wooden peg- in a certain place to make the 
eye. If they had no pewter and did not want to melt 
up a pewter plate, they used lead instead. Those not 
having- moulds would borrow. Some buttons were 


made of g-ourd shells, cut round and corered with 
cloth. Gourds were raised for dippers and drinking" 
cups; one would be hung" up at wells and spring's, and 
oh, what a g^ood drink one could g-et from an old- 
fashioned g-ourd! 

The women knit stocking's and socks. Straw hats 
were made for summer; for winter lambs' wool was 
taken to Mr. Hennings at Westfield, and made up into 
hats on the shares. For shoes, hides were tanned on 
the shares, and made up by shoe-makers the same 

They made their own soap with lye and grease. 
They sowed their flax and when mature, pulled it up 
by the roots and spread it out in rows on the grass 
for the stalk to rot and be brittle. Then it was put 
upon a scaffold and kiln dried, and there were four 
things which to the rising g'eneration would be nonde- 
scripts — a flax break, an upright scutching' board, a 
wooden scutching- knife, or paddle, and a hackel. 

The flax was then put in the break and the stalk 
broken into short pieces, then passed to the scutching' 
board and the "shoves" knocked out, then it was 
pulled through the hackel, which separated the short 
fiber from the long'. The long" was reg^ular flax ready 
to spin, and the short was "tow," which was coarse 
and had scraps of stalk left in it. It was made into 
tow linen for pants and shirts, and pity the skin of 
those who had to wear them. Some of the tow was 
spun into twine and traded at the store for wrapping' 


twine. Think of the merchant using- tow string- and 
coarse brown paper, made of straw and woolen rag-s, 
to wrap up packag-es. They had no paper sacks but 
sometimes the store-keeper's wife would paste some 
of the brown paper into sacks in which to tie up 

I will tell a tow-shirt tale. A boy, who is yet 
livings, had nothing- else on, waiting' while his mother 
was patching his tow pants. A man was seen coming 
and his mother told him to run up in the loft, but it 
was such a rare thing- to see somebody coming-, could 
he foreg-o the sight? No, he split to the door first to 
see the man, who by that time was in the yard, then 
ran up the ladder to the loft. His mother explained, 
and the man, Elias Johnson, said he understood it all. 
That boy walked carefully over the clapboard floor 
so as not to step on the end of a board, for if he had 
it would have tipped and landed him on the lower 
floor with banner flying. 

Before leaving- the flax subject, I will relate the 
disastrous ending- of a flax breaking and scutching-, 
about seventy years ag-o, on the farm now owned by 
Jonathan Johnson. All was in readiness and work 
had beg-un; the season's flax in sheaves was dry on the 
scaffold over the fire and around it, some of which was 
broken, scutched and hackled, when the boy, who is 
yet living-, and who was scutching a strand of flax, 
one end of which was wrapped around his hand, g-ot a 
little lazy, or cold, and in yanking- around and stand- 
ing- with his back to the fire, the lower end of his dry 


flax came into contact with the flame. Then such 
another yelping- and jumping"! In trying- to get the 
burning- flax off his hand, he did such a lively job of 
flopping- it up and down that he set fire to the whole 
kiln of flax, and that which was broken, the pile of 
scutched, hackled and the pile of tow. So the whole 
kit was destroyed, the flax work all done, and the boy 
left with a burned hand as a reminder. 

Before matches came into use the pioneer covered 
fire with ashes, but if it failed to keep they would go 
to the nearest neighbor and borrow fire, or strike fire 
with flint and steel. Many times they would have to 
go for fire before they could get breakfast. Some 
kept a log- heap or stump burning to furnish fire. 

For gates they made bars and hay forks were cut 
from the woods and trimmed up nicely and the prongs 
sharpened. For cathartics they boiled white walnut 
bark and made pills. Many had not coffee mills and 
would put the coffee in a rag- and pound on a flat-iron, 
and in the event of g-etting- out of coffee, and the store 
being- miles away, they would brown corn-bread crusts 
on live coals, or as a substitute, brown wheat, if they 
had it. 

Instead of barshear plows they used the jumping 
shovel. For reapers, mowing- machines and self- 
binders, they used the sickle, cradle and scythe. For 
threshing machines, they spread the wheat out on the 
barn floor, or a smooth level place on the g-round, and 
had horses to g-o round over it till the g-rain was 


tramped out, or beat the grain out with a "flail." The 
grain was then run through a fan mill to separate 
from the chaff, and if they had no fan mill would flop 
a sheet up and down to blow the chaff away. 

Instead of magazines, they read Poor Richard's 
Almanac. For school books they had the English 
Reader, Pike's Arithmetic, Walker's Dictionary, and 
Webster's Elementary Spelling Book, and introduc- 
tion to the English Reader. 

The schools did not have many classes, as the 
books were miscellaneous, scholars taking whatever 
kind they happened to have; for reading books, his- 
tories, etc., were used and there were cases in which 
scholars not having books took a newspaper in place 
of a reading book. 

For light, if they had tin candle moulds, they 
would mould tallow candles, the wicks of which 
would have to be snuffed off occasionally or they 
would give but little light, and candle snuffers were 
staple articles. Not having moulds, they would dip 
the wick into melted tallow, and let it cool, repeating 
the process till they would have an irregular and un- 
sightly candle which they called "schluts," or tallow 
dips. But not having tallow, an iron lamp, kept for 
sale by the store, was used. It was to hold grease 
and had a twisted rag for a wick. Not having the 
iron lamp, a saucer was used to hold the grease, with 
a rag wick extending over the edge. • 

Instead of an eight or ten hour law, men's work 
was from sun up till sun down at about twenty-five 


cents per day. The women cooked by fire-place, the 
four main cooking" utensils were of cast iron; a tea- 
kettle, skillet with lid, bake oven with lid and a stew 
kettle. Later on the frying" pan with a long handle 
was used. 

The first sig"n of preparing" a meal was to see the 
teakettle set on the fire, and the skillet and lid placed 
on to heat. When hot, live coals were shoveled on to 
the hearth to set the skillet of bread to bake, putting" 
on the hot lid and shoveling" live coals on it. Then 
there was the "Johnny cake," corn bread shortened 
with home rendered lard, or "cracklines" if at hog"- 
killing" time, and spread out on a "Johnny cake" 
board and baked by the direct heat of the fire, on both 
sides by turning". Good enough for a meal without 
anything^ else; yum! yum! 

It would sometimes happen that the teakettle 
would upset on the fire. Ho! then there was a mina- 
ture Vesuvius, with steam, ashes and soot flying", and 
kids and cats following" suit, or soot, but not in the 
same direction. Later on, swinging" iron cranes were 
used over the fire place with different leng"th S hooks 
to suspend kettles and pots on. 

For brooms, they made hickory ones by taking" 
the body of a hickory bush of proper size and leng"th 
and stripping" the toug"h splints from the end up 
apiece, then from hig"her up the splints were pulled 
down over the lower ones and then tied, and the bal- 
ance of the stick was shaved down to proper size for 
the handle. 


Lead pencils had no wood on them, were about 
the size of our present ones, but were all solid and of 
the same material contained in our present ones. 
After writing- awhile one's thumb and fing-er would be 
black. Inkstands were sold in the store and were 
made of two or three thick pieces of cork fastened 
together with wooden pegs and a hole left in the 
center in which was a little glass receptacle for the 

Goose quill pens were used in the schools, and 
when one got out of repair the pupil would g^o and 
hand it to the teacher, no words being passed, and he 
would remake the pen and hand it back. The teacher 
had a small sharp knife for that purpose, and here is 
the origin of the word penknife. 

Very early not many had clocks, and a "noon- 
mark" was cut in the floor at the south door to indi- 
cate dinner time and if the sun was not shining they 
could guess at it. For pumps they had the "well 
sweep" with an iron bound well bucket on the end of 
a pole or rope, or a windlass with a crank, by turning' 
which the rope and bucket were let down and drawn 

Rope Making 

Before flax was ready, well ropes were made of 
the outer bark or fiber of nettles, some one having' a 
rope twisting machine, which served for the whole 
neighborhood and on which later they made their 


ropes of flax or tow. There was some art in the pro- 
cess, and the uninitiated had to be shown. The rope 
maker was a twister, and. 

When a twister a twisting, would twist him a twist, 
For by the twisting of his twine, he three twines doth entwist. 
But if one of the twines of the twist doth untwist. 
The twine that untwisteth, untwisteth the twist. 

The Gas Well 

In stating- the tliing-s tlie pioneers did not have, I 
said they had no natural gas, but they had one gas well 
and did not know it. 

Ezekiel Clampitt dug a water well on his land, 
east of where now is the Friends Church at Poplar 
Ridge, and after he had come out, heard such a sizzing 
noise at the bottom that he attempted to let down a 
lighted candle to see if the "damps" were in it. A 
man having on tow clothing, which had been worn 
til] nappy, was sitting on the edge of the well with 
his legs hanging down in it, and Mrs. Clampitt was 
standing near the edge with her baby in her arms. 
When the flame of the candle reached the edge of the 
well there was an explosion, and a flame of fire 
heavenward. Mr. Clampitt's hat was blown off, Mrs. 
Clampitt was knocked down, and woe to the man sit- 
ting on the edge — it set the nap of his tow clothing 
afire, burning all over him. People came to see the 
wonder, and after it had been burning for some time, 
Mr. Clampitt was afraid of it, and filled the well up, 
and dug one in another place. 


The First Cook Stove 

About 1839, the first cook stove in this immediate 
vicinity, an old style step-stove, was broug-ht here 
from Ohio by Caleb Harvey. My father bought it of 
him for twenty-five dollars. Neighbors came to see 
cooking" done on a stove. 

The First Grist Mill 

In very early days a grist mill was built on Cold 
Creek in the vicinity of Smoky Row, and was still 
operated up to, and sometime during the war, or 
later. There was more water in the creek in early 
days than now, but when it got low the "head gate" 
would be shut down till the dam was full, then they 
could run the mill till that head of water was ex- 
hausted. In the forties, perhaps, a saw mill was 
added, but it was not the first one. 

The first saw mill was erected by Benjamin Mend- 
enhall on the creek east of town, and later, I believe, 
the Wise boys had a steam circle mill near there. 
William Wilkinson had a saw mill in the Mattsville 
Settlement, later turned into a grist mill. There was 
a saw mill at Gray, Poplar Ridge, Mulberry Corner, 
with grist mill added, Pleasant Grove, and one south 
of there, north of here, by the Jeffries brothers, one 
at one time on Old Town Run; one here, a band saw 
mill by Charles Wilkinson, then Buck & Crags bought 
and changed it to a circle mill, and later it was 
destroyed by fire. Then John E. Buck built another, 
which was finally removed from here. One by the 


Laycock Manufacturing' Company, which also burned 
down; then the present one commenced. There was 
a g-rist mill in the Mattsville Settlement, known as 
the Macy Bond Mill, run by water. 

The first steam saw mill here was built by Samuel 
Carey, Joseph Macy and Bohan Harvey in 1847. It 
was a sash mill, the log's being- hauled up into the 
second story on an inclined plane, and stood near 
where the school building- now stands. It was later 
known as the Gideon Newby mill, he chang-ing- it into 
a circle mill on the g-round story. Then later, he, in 
partnership with Silas Beeson, added a g-rist mill. 
When this saw mill was first started they sold clear 
poplar lumber at 37i cents per hundred, but later 
raised to 50 cents. 

In operating- this saw mill when first built, they 
sometimes did not have power enoug-h, the safety 
valve rising- and letting- steam off; so Mr. Harvey, one 
of the firm, g-ot on top of the boiler and sit on the end 
of the lever to hold it down! When some of them 
were at the machine shop at the city where the eng-ine 
was made, and related the incident, the first answer 
they received was "Jeff Davis is a liar! He said the 
Indiana soldiers would not stand battle. Anyone who 
w^ould sit upon that lever would face the cannon's 

This was in the time of the Mexican war. After 
the Monon railroad came, T. E. Carey and W. P. 
Dixon erected the present flowing- mill now operated 
by R. J. Follett & Co. 


The Forests 

At the time of first settling-, the woods were much 
different from what they are now. The large timbers 
were standing- — poplar, walnut, ash, oak, hickory, 
cherry, etc. There was an underg-rowth of bushes 
more than now, and larg-e bunches of spicewood 
which threw out arms from six to eight feet long, 
with smaller sprouts in the center. There were many 
patches of hazel and what spaces were left were 
covered with weeds, nettles and wild pea vines, the 
latter some places waist high and woe to any one 
whose lot it was to go through the woods just after a 
rain! He would get as wet as a drowned rat. Just 
let him touch a limb and a shower was upon him, and 
it seemed that the water was wetter than now. 

The next thing in order, after building log cabins, 
was to look after clearing land for cultivation. First 
the bushes were cut down and small ones and sprouts 
grubbed up. The trees were either chopped down, or 
deadened by chopping around them. The best of the 
oaks and walnuts were split into rails, the others 
deadened but left standing either for future use, or 
when dead and dry, cut down, "niggered" off, rolled 
together and burned along with various other species 
which would be valuable saw timber now. 

The tree being dead, their limbs were broken up 
in falling and were piled up and burned. At this 
distant day that looks like a waste of timber and fire- 


wood. There was some sale for poplar trees after 
awhile, and good ones brought fifty cents per tree. 
But the trees are felled and, 

'Ere other forests shall rise in their stead, 

The most of us will surely be dead. 

Sick Wheat 

Until enough land could be cleared for both wheat 
and corn, corn bread was the rule. When the first 
crop of wheat came in, only think of biscuits of well 
kneaded dough, baked in a hot skillet over live coals 
and under a hot lid by a fire-place and eaten with 
fried ham and eggs, spicewood tea and maple molasses 
and with appetites sharpened by not having wheat 
bread for so long a time. Your finest cake would be 
nowhere in comparison. 

At some harvests the wheat would be "sick" and 
the bread would make one sick, except a rare few 
who could eat it with impunity, my father being one, 
and mother would make biscuits for him only. One 
day our good neighbor, Eli Phelps, came and stayed 
for dinner and took one of the biscuits, thinking that 
if father could eat them he could, but after dinner he 
was sick enough. 

Ginseng, or "sang" was plentiful and was a staple 
article of trade after a store came, at which it was 
bartered at twenty-five cents per pound, washed and 
well dried. 

The squirrels were of gray species and were so 
very numerous that in order to raise any corn, the 


neig"hbors would arrang^e hunting" parties to thin them 
out and being too numerous to carry, and as they 
could not use so many, they strung their scalps, and 
the one having- the most scalps was the best man. In 
course of time the fox squirrel came around and the 
g"rays disappeared. 

The blackbirds were so numerous they had to be 
scared off by a "hoss fiddle" making" a great clacking- 
racket to keep them from taking- up the newly planted 

In the autumn there was such a profusion of dry 
fallen leaves that when fire g-ot started in them, 
woods and fences were in dang-er and all the neig-hbors 
had to drop everything- and fig-ht fire. There was an 
odor of burnt leaves and a pall of smoke hang-ing- in 
the direction of the fire. 

The Indians 

We found aborig-ines, called "Indians," "First 
Americans." Perhaps they and the mound builders 
were one and the same. The author of the "Pre- 
historic World," after canvassing- the subject, finally 
concluded that they and the mound builders, cliff 
dwellers, and the builders of the magnificent ruins of 
Mexico, Yucatan and Bolivia, the Aztecs, the Taltecs 
and Eskimos were one and the same race, but in 
different states of advancement. 

God is in history which no man can unravel. 
Who can tell us who, without iron tools, sculptured 
the statues of Chaac Mol and Huitzilopochtli? The 


latter was unearthed in the city of Mexico. Ghost of 
Tenoclititlan, can'st thou tell? The Indian women 
strapped their papooses on a board and carried it 
on their backs. There was one case in which the 
squaw, before entering- a white neighbor's house, left 
her papoose leaning against the outside of the house 
and an old sow came along and ate it. The poor 
woman mourned and cried, "Oh, my poor papoose, 
my poor papoose!" 

There was one family of Indians by the name of 
Ketcham that lived a little southwest of Mahlon Day's 
residence, on the west of the little stream, and there 
was a good sulphur spring on a little solid spot, but 
the ground around it was soft and shaky. There was 
an ever-ready gourd hanging near out of which to 
drink. The marsh has been drained and the spring is 
no more. A few trees of the Indian's orchard are yet 
standing. Pieces of bright lead ore and flint darts 
were found in the cabin. 

The Indian's given name was Charley. He made 
a sale preparatory to going beyond the Mississippi 
to the Indian Territory. After going there one of his 
sons became a Methodist preacher. While living here 
my father traded him a silver watch for furs, and did 
not explain to him about its having to be wound up 
and when it stopped running, he came back with it 
and said, "Watch no good; white man no good." Upon 
being shown that it had to be wound, he said, "Watch 
all right; white man all right." 


The Indians were friendly; my mother was kind to 
them and would give them things and talk to the 
squaws. My mother was called "Polly" and it hap- 
pened that two other white women's names were the 
same, and after that old Charley called all white 
women "Polly," 

At the time of his sale he was jolly, having im- 
bibed too much "fire water." His squaw's name was 
Nancy, and he wanted to sell everything, and went 
around saying: "I sella my dog, I sella my Nance, I 
sella my papoose. Will you buy. Poll?" My father 
bought a few articles at the sale and went and paid 
for them on the day due, and the Indian said, "Good 
white man." He did not understand English as well 
as his squaw, and mother told him that people said 
the Indians would kill white folks, and said to him, 
"You won't, will you?" and he quickly ejaculated 
with emphasis, "Yes!" But his squaw said that he 
did not understand, and that he was all right. 

The Ketchams, in some way, became rich after 
going to the Indian Territory, and drove in their 
coach. Not very many years ago, John P. Carey, 
when in the Territory, ran across and interviewed old 
Charley. Mr. Carey told him he was from here in 
Indiana, and he said, "Indiana?" and asked whose son 
he was, and when told said: "O, yes, Sammy Carey, 
good white man. Stay for dinner." 

There was another set of Indians between Edmond 
Graves' and William Morrows' homes. They had tents 


and many hounds for hunting-. Mother went some 
distance to a white neig^hbors and left my brother 
with them till she came back, and the squaw g^ave 
him a piece of dried venison, which was so salty that 
he could not eat it, and he was afraid not to eat 
it for fear they would kill him. He chewed at it till 
he got into a patch of hig-h weeds and then threw it 
away. The Indian woman told of their singing- their 
song's and mother asked her if they sang^ g^ood song's 
and she answered: "Do you think we'd sing- bad 
song's?" She told the Indian woman that before they 
came to this country they were told that the Indians 
could track white folks by their scent. The answer 
was: "Are white folks fools, and think Indians are 
like dog's?" 

The Indian and white boys ran foot races, but the 
former g^enerally outsprinted. They were experts 
with bow and arrows and showed how they made their 
flint darts, and fastened them on the arrows with the 
tendrils of deer's legs. Sometimes they would come 
begg'ing and say, "Indian wants" so and so. 

There was another Indian southeast. His name 
was "Johnny Cake." That sounds good. In one In- 
dian grave was found a silver breast pin and in 
another a g^un barrel. 

I will wind up the Indian history by telling' a 
soup tale. In those days a squad of these aborig'ines 
likely returning' from an unsuccessful hunting" or fish- 
ing expedition, and hungry, passed by a white set- 
tler's who happened to have been butchering' hog's, 


and asked for the entrails, which they carried with 
them, and upon stopping- at another house beg"gfed 
their dish water and the use of a larg-e kettle. 

With the entrails for a body, and the dish water 
for the broth, they had a kettle of hot soup. Then 
each one got a piece of cornstalk which they sopped 
in the soup, as they squatted around the kettle, and 
sucked the "goody" from it till the soup was thus 
licked up. Reader, how would that kind of a menu 
strike your copperosity? 

Log Rollings 

When the log's in a "clearing" were all burned or 
chopped into lengths, it was very common to make a 
"log rolling," inviting neighbors enough to roll into 
"log heaps" a whole field in a day, and in order to 
get good work by the young men, the women folks 
would have a quilting or wool picking the same day, 
the young folks knowing that so soon as the day's 
work was over a party was to take place, and at its 
close the boys would see the girls home. In like man- 
ner they had house and barn raisings. 

Legal Tender 

Foreign coins were legal tender and there were 
more of Jbhem in circulation than our own, mostly 
Spanish and Mexican, consisting of dollars, halves, 
quarters, eighths and sixteenths. The quarters were 
called shillings, or bits, the half quarter or eighth, 
twelve and half cents was called "lebenpence" (eleven 


pence) and the sixteenths, six and one-fourth cent 
pieces, fips, or "fip'and a bit." I suppose tlie quarter 
of the cent was the bit. In tlie days of fips we had 
very hard times and a fip was about as hard to catch 
as a dollar is now. A man's wages for covering- corn 
at planting time was twenty-five cents, and a boy, if 
an expert at dropping corn, got ten cents. 

Wheat brought thirty-seven and a half cents per 
bushel, but had to be hauled in a wagon to Lawrence- 
burg or Cincinnati and a team would be on the road 
about a week, bringing back a side of sole leather, 
barrel of salt, etc. Salt was about ten dollars a 
barrel. They would finish out the load coming back 
with salt, iron, etc., for the home merchant. Corn 
was as low as eight cents per bushel. 

There was a wedding not in Cana of Galilee, but 
near Bethlehem, now Carmel, and money being scarce 
and groceries, etc., for the dinner being high, the 
parents of the bride tried to get them to "put it off" 
for awhile, but it is not necessary to add that it would 
not "put off." 

First Church and School House 

It was the Friends log "meeting house," then 
called Richland, on the south side of the cemetery, 
then called "grave-yard." It was also used for a 
school house, and was built about 1833. A sheet was 
hung up for a door shutter till they could get lumber 
for one. An addition, the same size, was built to this 
house in 1835. 


For fire they had boxes of clay and mortar in the 
center, in which they burned charcoal, till later they 
put in plain box stoves. These had plates near the 
top to draw the blaze to the back part and then for- 
ward again to the pipe in front. The plate of the one 
in the school room, g^etting- so it would fall down, school 
would have to adjourn until it was set up ag^ain and it 
g"ot to behaving- so badly that one day, at the noon 
play time, the teacher sent for, not the seven grave 
cardinals who compelled Galileo to recant, but Isaac 
Rich, one of the strict g-allery overseers of the church, 
to come with his rifle and shoot it! After that they 
had no more trouble with it, as he shot holes in the 
sides of the stove, throug^h which iron rods were in- 
serted to hold the plate up. 

Before this log- building- disappeared, a new frame 
one was built south of it in 1843 and 1845, but was 
torn down after the location of the present one. On 
the south of the above removed building- was the 
brick Carmel Academy, later condemned and torn 
down. Before the Academy, there was a frame school 
building- east of the above mentioned torn down 
church, used in the fifties, and which was removed 
into Clay Township and finally sold. 

There was a common school house on the road 
south, on the northwest corner of J. W. Moffitt's pres- 
ent residence farm which was finally sold and re- 
moved. There were also other log- school houses, one 
with one door and one window of four eight by ten 
panes on the farm since owned by Jonah Pertig-. The 


patrons met here to make the improvement of a long- 
window and a plank for writing" lessons. They sawed 
out one log", and pasted newspapers in its place and 
then smeared soap grease on the paper, making it 
translucent enough to let in a little light. 

The old M. E. Church building on South Main 
Street was finished in the fall of 1855, and was sold 
and removed after the completion of the present new 
one, which was dedicated March 4, 1906. 

Tinkers^ Clock Repairers and Peddlers 

In the early days the above personages passed 
through the country, and mostly on foot. The tinker 
carried a budget on his back in which was his melting 
ladle and moulds for melting up and recasting the 
pewter ware, basins, dishes, plates, spoons, etc., 
which were used in those days, and perhaps some 
stock of pewter for casting additional ones. This 
ware would get bent out of shape and tarnished, but 
when recast was nearly as bright and nice as silver, 
and would shine nicer than a "pewter dollar in a mud 

The clock repairer was looked upon as a person 
of more than ordinary ability, being able to pile up 
the wheels of a clock, and then get them all back to 
their places. A clock you can buy now for two or 
three dollars cost about twenty then. 

The foot peddler came along" occasionally, and 
they could buy combs, buttons, thread, needles, pins, 
Jews harps, red handkerchiefs, etc. 


Five Dozen Eggs at One Meal 

I can record a case in which a family of ten ate five 
dozen boiled eggs at one meal and at another time ate 
a pile of pumpkin pies about ten inches hig-h. Pump- 
kins were plentiful, and eg-g-s sometimes, when any 
sale for them at all, brought one and a half cents per 
dozen. One farmer broug-ht a bushel basket full to 
the store, and being no sale for them at any price, 
threw them ag"ainst a stump one at a time. 

Soft Soaping 

It happened that Jonas Hoover was about to start 
to see his neig"hbor, Barnaby Newby, and it being 
wash day, his wife wanted him to take off his shirt to 
be washed; but refusing-, she thoug^ht to fix him, and 
smeared his shirt while on him all over with soft soap 
so he would be compelled to take it off, but he was 
stubborn and went to the neig-hbor's in that plig'ht. 

Showing New Boots 

Once upon a time it came to pass that some of the 
young- men actually had boots and on a Sunday after- 
noon and just after a heavy raiti, a party of them 
were walking- over a pasture field and one had "boots 
and wished it to be known. A little piece ahead a 
small pond of water had spread out, and he ran and 
jumped in it thinking" to make a big" splash and show 
that he had boots, he went entirely under water and 


came up the second time before being- rescued. He 
had jumped into an old well overflown by the heavy 

State and County Roads 

Somewhere about 1835 the state road, now Main 
Street, was hacked out from Indianapolis to Kokomo, 
and the county road, now our Main Cross Street, a 
little later. The bushes were cut and some trees 
most in the way. Big- logs were in some places left 
to be gone around. A little north of L. J. Small's 
drug store was a large log lying across the road and 
they put fire and a chunk on it, burning enough away 
for one on horseback or afoot to pass through, but a 
wagon had to go around it. 

Starting a Town 

In 1837 my father set about starting a town here, 
being the intersection of the roads and where four 
farms cornered, the southwest being his own. Two 
others, Alexander Mills on the northeast and John 
Phelps on the southeast, were willing to have land 
platted and sell lots, but on the northwest the owner 
was unwilling. My fathered offered him one hundred 
dollars for an acre, enough for four lots. That being- 
such a big price he accepted it. Then the grounds 
were platted and recorded under the name of Bethle- 

There were a plenty of tadpoles then, and my 
father meeting a neighbor who was opposed to having- 


a town, told him that we had a town and its name was 
Bethlehem, and his answer was "Yes, Tadpoles 

My father sold lots at whatever he could g-et for 
them in order to start the town. One he sold for five 
yards of home-made jeans of indifferent quality, and 
the purchaser was to build a house on it and did of 
small round logs, the cracks filled with clay, and 
about large enough for a poultry house; but it filled 
the contract. 

The postoffice was named Carmel, because there 
was one in the state by the name of Bethlehem, In 
the early sixties when the town was incorporated the 
name was chang-ed to Carmel to accord with the name 
of the postoffice. 

Establishment of the Postoffice 

On the 20th of January, 1846, the postoffice was 
granted by the name of Carmel with service once a 
week horseback. Joseph W. Macy was appointed 
postmaster, and he served to January 4th, 1847, then 
Levi Haines, Sr., was appointed. Mr. Haines served 
until April 16th, 1850, when Isaac W. Stanton was 
appointed. Mr. Stanton held till October 17th, 1853, 
when Alfred T. Jessup was appointed. Mr. Jessup 
held till April 3rd 1856, when John H. Kenyon took 
charg-e. Mr. Kenyon served till February 26th, 1858, 
when Jonathan J. Griffin superseded him. Mr. Grif- 
fin's time ran up to the appointment of Alfred W. 
Brown, September 14th, 1858. Then commenced a 


long- term when Z. Warren took chargfe of the office, 
first as assistant on the 6th of April, 1864, until re- 
ceiving- his appointment and commission in the follow- 

in&July. 151068S! 

At this time postage to Oregon was ten cents for 
a half ounce letter, and to Eng-land twenty-four cents, 
later re-adjusted to twelve cents, then again to five, 
and recently to two cents. 

Z. Warren, the writer hereof, served till Novem- 
ber 28th, 1885, when superseded by Eli G. Binford 
during- Cleveland's first term. Warren's whole time 
being twenty-one years, seven months and twenty-two 
days. Postoflftce boxes were installed on the tenth of 
June, 1864, and soon after a bi-weekly and later a tri- 
weekly route was petitioned for and granted, via 
Noblesville, and a hack ran to carry passeng-ers, and 
later was g-ranted daily, and after a time was chang-ed 
direct from Indianapolis, then again chang-ed back to 
Noblesville, till the railroad commenced carrying- the 
mail, June 15th, 1883. The first reg-ular passeng-er 
train went throug-h on June 18th, 1883, northbound. 

The money order and postal note business com- 
menced about six months before Warren relinquished 
the office. His successor, above mentioned, served 
nearly four years, when J. W. Nutt was appointed in 
1888, serving four years till 1892, when America Crag-s 
was appointed and served four years till 1896. Then 
George Bowen was appointed and served until resig-n- 
ing- in the early part of 1909, and recommending the 


present incumbent, Alfred V. Rayl, as his successor, 
who was appointed and is our present postmaster, he 
being" the thirteenth. 

During the time of the horseback route, if the 
river was up, even enough for an excuse, the carrier 
would come only to Broad Ripple and leave our mail 
there, and sometimes after not having any mail for 
three weeks, we would send for it. This being the 
darkest year of the war, we had the postmaster at 
Indianapolis send our mail to Noblesville, and a club 
was formed here to go after it, each one taking his 
turn, and bringing daily papers. 

The horseback carrier upon entering town blew a 
blast on his tin trumpet to warn the postmaster to be 
ready to change the mail so he could be on his way 
ag"ain. When the mail hack ran one had little time at 
the city, being on the road most of the time, and cold 
if in winter. Think what a change now, carried in a 
comfortable car by electricity in so short a time and 
at little over one half the hack fare and advantage of 
g^oing and returning at one's convenience. 

A Rattlesnake Tale 

About the year 1832 when there was yet a log- 
heap in the yard of our rail pen, or log cabin, a large 
yellow rattler came into the yard and crawled into 
the heap, and my mother was alone with the children 
and being- fearful for their safety, besides the old 
grudge between the woman and the serpent anyhow, 
(see Genesis) she planned to extinguish him. She g-ot a 


"big" stick" and thinking-, "old fellow thee'll have to 
come out of there" as she set fire to one end of the 
dry heap, and stationed herself at the other. She did 
not ask if it was hot enoug-h for him, but soon he 
discovered that fact and came "poling-" out. She 
struck one lick after another, hallowing- at each strike 
just as loud as she could, and she landed him. 

The First Store and Subsequent Ones 

About the year 1835, it came to pass that a rumor 
went forth that we were to have a store in Bethlehem 
and soon it beg-an to assume a reality, as a round 
beech-log- "store-house" was actually erected and 
roofed with the conventional "clap-boards," and the 
cracks between logs chunked and dobbed with clay. 
By a certain Sunday it had g-ot to this stag-e, no floor 
or shelving- yet, and the young men of the neighbor- 
hood gathered there to discuss the great event. 
Among those present were my brothers, Martin 
Phelps and his brother John, Clarkson T. Cook, and 
Jesse, or Joseph P. Cook, some of Isaac Rich's boys 
and others in their Sunday clothes. The store stood 
about where L. J. Patty's milliner shop and office 
burned south of the bank, 

A store was started in it by a man by the name of 
Boggs, and his clerk's name was Benson Bogus. In 
the fall the clerk would put a notice that he was out 
gathering hickory nuts, and if some one came for a 
spool of thread, bonnet board or wire, they would 
hunt him up. Some of the staple goods were New 


Orleans sug-ar and molasses, mackerel, blacksmith's 
iron, dog" irons, cast iron, odd lids for skillets and 
ovens, calico, "factory" (coarse muslin), bandana 
handkerchiefs, Jew's harps, wooden combs, bonnet 
boards and wire, pine tar, iron lamps, snuffers, wool 
cards, etc. 

A barrel of mackerel would sometimes sit near 
the door, being about the first thing one would see. 
Their wrapping paper was called brown paper, made 
of straw and woolen rags, no paper sacks then. As I 
remarked in the flax and tow narrative, they would 
buy tow twine for wrapping. 

The first store did not remain very long, perhaps 
a year or two, then we had no store ag^ain; but some- 
times goods were brought and auctioned, then another 
store would come and remain for awhile and then 
leave, until Levi Haines, Sr., came with a store in the 
same building, and after that we always had a store. 
Mr. Haines took in Caleb Harvey as partner but they 
soon dissolved partnership and the business was car- 
ried on by the former as before. 

After Mr. Haines retired. Little, Drum and An- 
derson, of Indianapolis, put in a general store in the 
same old building- in 1846 or 7, with Elijah King- as 

Mr. King later bought them out and carried on the 
business himself, and built a new frame building on 
the corner where the bank now stands, and after a 
time he took in Sylvanus Carey, and his son Josiah 


E. King- as partners, and the firm was known as King", 
Carey & King-. Mr. Carey g-oing- out, the firm was E. 
King & Son. The son, Josiah E., left the firm in 
March 1864, leaving his father, Elijah King, alone 
again, he ran his stock down and closed out, auction- 
ing- off the old traps etc., then repaired and painted 
some, and started anew, not keeping g-roceries and 
finally selling- out to his son, Prank H. King, who 
added g-roceries again. After a time the latter was 
appointed a missionary to Mexico by the society of 
Friends, and disposed of his stock to Puckett & 
Stanley, and after returning from Mexico took back 
the stock of goods, and finally closed out, but after- 
ward went into the shoe business on west Main cross 
street, succeeded by Mr. T. H. Burkhart who of late 
associated in partnership with Mr.T. A. Painter. Mr. 
Burkhart retiring, leaves Mr. Painter sole proprietor. 

The frame store building of Elijah King was 
moved down on the "big ditch" by Joseph Hornbaker 
for a blacksmith shop and it went up in smoke at the 
time the Jefferies livery barn burned. 

About J850 Elam and Alfred W. Brown from 
Richmond, Ind., opened a general store on the south- 
west corner of East Main cross street and College 
Avenue, in the residence building now owned by Mr. 
Thomas White. Later, John Kinzer, who built the 
L. J. Small drug store building died, and the Brown 
brothers moved their store into it. After a time they 
sold to Kenyon & Randall, the latter soon leaving 


the firm, and Mr. Kenyon later sold to Jonathan 
Griffin and brother, whose stock was boug-ht by some 
one at Westfield and removed there. 

After this Alfred W, Brown returned and put in 
a stock of g^eneral merchandise, and closed out in 
April 1864. Then the building- stood vacant for some 
time till Stanley & Symons started up with drugfs 
and groceries. Mr. Stanley dying- the business was 
conducted by the surviving- partner, Mr. Alpheus 
Symons, or Symons & Baker. After this Thomas E. 
Carey came in and the firm was Carey & Symons, and 
after their time William S. Warren boug-ht the real 
estate and he and David W. Kinzer conducted a drug- 
and g-rocery store. Mr. Kinzer left the firm and War- 
ren sold the real estate and drug- and g-rocery stock to 
Eli Small, Sr., after whose death the real estate and 
stock was taken by his son, L. J. Small, the present 

A few years, ago Oden Hamar went into the drug- 
business here in the building-, since destroyed by fire, 
on the south side of the bank, but closed after a short 

In March, 1864, Josiah E. King having purchased 
the real estate at the southwest corner of Main and 
Main Cross Streets opened up a general store and 
stock of clothing-, doing- much business for a time. On 
the sixth of April following-, the postoffice went into 
this store in charge of Z. Warren as assistant post- 
master, who was appointed postmaster and received 


his commission in July following- from Montgomery 
Blair, Postmaster General, during- Abraham Lincoln's 

Mr. King closed out in January, 1869, Asel Dun- 
ning- buying- the stock, but later went into the grocery 
business in the building- just south of the bank, since 
destroyed by fire, and upon his death his widow, Mrs. 
Frances King continued the business for awhile. Mr. 
Dunning-, after merchandising- awhile, sold a half in- 
terest to Alfred T. Jessup, the firm being- Jessup & 
Dunning. Then Sylvanus Comer boug-ht Mr. Dunning's 
interest, chang-ing the firm to Jessup and Comer, and 
the latter retiring left Mr, Jessup alone until Thomas 
Harvey went in as partner, chang-ing- the firm to 
Jessup & Harvey. Mr, Harvey leaving-, the firm after- 
ward was Jessup & Warren, the latter buying- Mr. 
Jessup's interest in September, 1885, and closing out 
in 1898. Then L. J, Patty removing- his stock from 
the opposite side of Main Street into the room, and 
later selling a half interest to Thomas A. Painter, the 
firm was Patty & Painter and afterwards Painter & 
Barker, Mr, Barker leaving the firm, Mr, Painter 
went to the Masonic Hall building- in 1906, and finally 
selling- out to Irvin L. Kinzer, who was succeeded by 
Spivey & Co., the present occupants. 

In February, 1907, Carl E. Thomas commenced the 
grocery business on the southwest corner of Main and 
Main Cross Streets, and of late was succeeded by 
Thomas H. Burkhart, the present occupant, 


Before the Masonic Hall store room was occupied 
by Mr. Painter, it had been used by Thomas W. Nutt, 
hardware; Jason Leippard, shoes and furniture; after 
which by the Citizens Bank; then by Alpheus Farlow, 
and later by the Thomas Bros, the latter two firms 

About 1871 or 1872, David W. Kinzer commenced 
the g-eneral store in the building- occupied at present 
by his son, W. A. Kinzer, taking- in Isaac W. Harold 
as partner, the firm being Harold & Kinzer, but later 
Sylvanus Carey going in as partner changed the firm 
to Harold, Kinzer & Co. Carey and Harold g-oing out, 
Mr. Kinzer was alone till being afflicted with rheuma- 
tism, retired in favor of his son, W. A. Kinzer. 

In the early fifties, Joseph Randall, Jr., leaving 
the firm of Kenyon & Randall, and taking with him 
some of the old stock of shoes, etc., which he had 
traded for and took in with him, set up a little grocery 
in a small building which Caleb Harvey had built for 
a store room on the east side of South Main Street, at 
the intersection of Vine Alley, in front of where the 
Crag's residence now stands. It was attended by 
his son-in-law, Amos P. Harvey, who also worked on 
clocks and watches. 

Along about this time Terry Templin had a small 
grocery on the east side of South Main Street, on the 
next lot south of Isaac J. Bales' residence. He took 
out the ashes in a pine box, which he set in the back 
room, and about one o'clock that night the building 
went up in smoke and flame. 


At present there are very many other business 
enterprises, such as: The Carmel Lumber Yard, 
Newspaper Office, g-rocer of W. A. Puckett, Bank, 
Telephone System, Library, "Racket" Store, cement 
block business. Hardware, Harness, Meat Market, 
Natural Gas Company, Bakery, Creamery, Restaur- 
ants, etc. 

The Tan- Yard 

Soon after the town was established, Caleb Har- 
vey started a tan-yard on the south side of what is 
now West Main Cross Street, and extending- east from 
the "big- ditch", with its pool, tanning- vats, etc., shed 
for storing- and g-rinding- tan bark, another building- 
for currying- and finishing room. 

The vats were oblong-, sunken in the ground and 
made water tig-ht of sawed oak about two inches 
thick, their tops being flush with the top of the 

They tanned cowhides, calf, sheep, dog-, or any 
kind of skins, and made g-ood sole and upper leather, 
coloring the latter black. The tan bark was of oak, 
peeled off about four feet long while the sap was up. 
In some cases nice white oaks were cut and peeled for 
the bark, the bodies being left to decay or be burned. 

The yard was later owned or operated by Isaac 
W. Stanton and Bohan Harvey awhile, Mr. Stanton 
making up some of the leather into harness. This 
yard was owned by other parties, Franklin Hall and 


others. Esquire Isaac Wrig-ht was running- it in 1855, 
but not long- after that it went into Cleveland's "inoc- 
uous desuitude." 

Packing House 

About 1842 another business enterprise was en- 
tered into by Caleb Harvey, the same man who 
established the tan-yard, but it proved disastrous. It 
was a pork packing house; a log building was filled 
with pork up to the top. He bought the dressed hogs 
at one dollar per hundred net; made no use of the 
feet — any one could have all they wanted of them. 
The heads were not used, they only trimming off parts 
for the lard, and I forget whether they charged any- 
thing for the back bones and ribs or not, perhaps a 
little something-. 

Salt was then very high, had to be wagoned from 
the Ohio River. It was at some times from eight to 
ten dollars per barrel and it took a lot of it to salt 
down so much pork. This bacon had to be wagoned 
to Madison to find a market, and as the market price 
there in the spring was but three cents per pound, it 
would not pay transportation, and was consequently 
almost a total loss, as little could be sold at home, 
and the whole mass laid as packed, unsmoked, and 
rotted. Any one wanting any for soap or lamp grease 
could get it free. I will conclude this venture by 
relating an incident connected therewith. 


A man broug^ht in a singfle dressed hog" after nig"ht 
and it was weig"hed and paid for without noticing- its 
condition, which was all right except that it had not 
been fattened any, and observing the fact next morn- 
ing" the packer placed a rail extending" out from the 
rail fence in front of the lot on which is John Rayl's 
residence, that being" the packing" lot, and hung" the 
poor hog" up there for a show. After hanging" several 
days the seller's father carried it away. 

The Big Ditch 

The big ditch was dug" by Daniel Warren about 
the year 1837 or 38, but no further north than the road, 
which is now Main Cross Street, and lower down 
were log"s and drifts so the water would back up very 

The First Burial 

The first interment in our cemetery was a woman 
by the name of Huif , and a natural stone not far from 
the walnut tree marks her long" resting" place. But 
the first one from our town, or where the town was to 
be, to break the solemn and ever since oft and sorrow- 
ful traveled road, was Mrs. Miriam Phelps, a very 
estimable old lady, and the mother of Martin Phelps. 
She was a favorite of the writer, then a little boy, 
who stood out in the yard at our home, gflued to the 
ground, with eyes fixed upon the solemn, white 


covered wag^on, the finest vehicle that could be ob- 
tained, until it started with the corpse, and was out 
of sigfht. 

Since then three hundred and four more from this 
town have traveled over that road, "And there's more 
to follow." 

The First House in Town 

The Phelp's log" farm house, previously spoken 
of, was the first one built where the town was later 
laid out. An addition was later built to it on the 
east, which when vacated was used by Mahlon Haines 
for a wagon woodwork shop. The writer remembers 
seeing" the g-reen chips lying" in the yard, and of being- 
left there by his parents while they went to stay till 
bed time with some other neighbors. They had a big 
log" fire, and when the men folks and work hands came 
in and were circled around before it, he became abashed 
and commenced crying". The g"irls asked him what 
was the matter and he meant to tell them that he was 
bashful and wanted to g"o home, but did not know how 
to express his trouble, and answered that he was 
"ashamed of them." One of these g"irls a few years 
ag"0 was wondering" if he was ashamed of them yet. 

First Frame House 

Having" described the first house in town, I will 
now tell of the first frame building", which was a two 
story built by Thomas Mills, standing" with end to the 


street, and having' a veranda the whole length of the 
south side, on lot number three, on North Main 
Street, An accompanying' out house was built but 
was smashed by a larg-e oak tree falling" on it. 

The main house g-ot so far along as to have a roof 
on the veranda, under which George Davis made fur- 
niture, etc. Times were so hard that this building, 
not even weatherboarded, stood and rotted till not 
safe, was pulled down. 

About this time the Mills brothers put up a frame 
on the "Mills' lot" about east of where the William J. 
Hawkin's estate barn now stands and it stood, a frame 
only, till decaying" was pulled down. 

The next frame built and finished was on lot 
thirteen, North Main Street, by Thomas Mills, since 
torn down. Next in 1838 or 1839, Caleb Harvey built 
the two story frame, since removed to the northeast 
corner ol South Main Street and Vine Alley, and 
John West built the two story part of the one now 
on the northwest corner of Main and Main Cross 

Little Incidents 

About 1887 was the only hail storm in which the 
hail stones were as larg^e as g'oose eg^g^s, horses pelted 
by them ran g'alloping' around in a frenzy. 

The first tomatoes ever g-rown in this vicinity 
were in a bed about the year 1840 or 1841, on lot ten, 
just about where Mr. Strattan's lunch counter stands. 


They were merely curios to all except the family who 
planted them. Neig^hbors put them on their mantels 
or shelves, thinking' they were like a pig"'s tail, more 
for ornament than use. 

The first threshing" machine reaching- this vicinity 
was the old style "ground hog^" machine with a 
tumbling' shaft, and was run by horse power. It was 
owned by Jacob Burnside. The sheaf band was cut 
with a pocket knife, and a toothed cylinder pulled 
the wheat in and threshed it all rig-ht but did not 
separate the g'rain and chaff, which was afterward run 
throug'h a fan mill, propelled by hand, to blow the 
chaff out. 

About the year 1842, a man afterwards a citizen 
of this town, planned to extract one of his molar 
teeth. Going' up stairs and tying" a cord to the tooth 
and an iron wedg-e to the other end of the cord, threw 
the wedg'e out of a window; he landed the tooth and it 
was well for him that he had a larg'e strong' neck, for 
he said it came so near breaking' his neck, he would 
never do that way ag'ain. 

When many of the dead oak trees were standing-, 
and the g-round frozen hard a farmer cut some of them 
down after nig'ht, and thinking' his neig-hbor made an 
unnecessary complaint about disturbing- his sleep, cut 
several nearly ready to fall, in a field adjoining' him, 
and at the proper time that nig'ht cut one to awaken 
him, then piling' broken limbs till he supposed him 
asleep ag'ain, then down would come another tree, till 
they were all felled, and his neighbor never com- 
plained ag'ain. 


I will tell a cat tale. In the long agfo some 
parents went from home, leaving- the children alone, 
and they having- a grudge against the old cat, thoug-ht 
that the opportunity to g-et rid of it had come. Not 
knowing- how hard a cat is to kill, one held it up by 
the hind leg-s while another struck it with a club, and 
it jumped with a big meoiv, and ran under the house. 
They were watched by their little sister, who so soon 
as their parents returned, ran and met them and said: 
"We killed the old cat and she didn't die!" That "let 
the cat out of the wallet." 

In those days a boy, who is yet living-, was sent 
into the corn field to plant beans in the corn hills, and 
after planting- awhile dumped and covered up the 
whole lot in one hill, and told his mother they were 
all planted! 

There were a couple of old people here, Jirah 
Smith and wife, Avis, gfenerally spoken of as uncle 
and aunt, and a little boy, Bennet Haines, whose 
sister or half sister, Sarah Ann, was staying- with 
them, was asked by another boy why he did so. This 
question was a poser, and after studying a little, 
said: "Well, 'Sare Ann' has been staying- there so 
longf we are getting- to be a little kin." 

Jirah Smith, mentioned above, was a Yankee and 
one day a jocular farmer meeting- him at the store 
asked him to play a "Yankee trick." "No," he re- 
plied, but said he would swap horses with him. So 
they repaired to the Smith residence to see his horse, 


and g'oing' around to the back yard, he said: "There 
he is." It was a wooden "shave horse" used to sit 
astride, and to hold shing"les, etc., to be shaved with 
a draw-knife! And that was the Yankee trick. 

First Street Improvement 

Once upon a time in the long" agfo, and in the nice 
spring-time, enoug^h civic pride developed to cause a 
spasmodic effort to improve Main Street, and Martin 
Phelps came with his team and plowed g-utters on 
each side, from North Street south to Water or 
further. The other volunteers were John West, 
Bohan Harvey, Isaac W. Stanton, William S. Warren, 
the writer, and perhaps some others, each armed with 
a shovel or spade and earth was cast to the center, 
making- a little thrown up way. This was long- before 
the pike road came through, which was in 1865, J. 
Frank Davis having- the contract throug-h here, and the 
g-round was in its natural condition, except what mud 
holes had developed, and were filled by the supervisor 
with beech brush which was near at hand, and on 
which dirt was shoveled. In a few years all traces 
of this g-rade disappeared. 

Going to Quarterly Meeting 

The Friends' Quarterly Meeting- was held at 
White Lick before it was here, and was quite an 
event with the young- folks. There being- no buggies 
they went horse back, the g-irls mounted on side 


saddles. A young- man would ride side by side with 
his g-irl, and others would count it quite a diversion 
to ride in between and "cut him out." 

Fires in Carmcl 

The first in town was the Terry Templin little 
g-rocery previously mentioned. The second was John 
W. Crew's Shoe Shop on the northeast corner of 
South Main and Water Streets. The others, thoug-h 
perhaps not quite in the rotation in which they 
occurred, were the saw mill of John E. Buck, the saw 
mill and drying- house of the Laycock Manufacturing- 
Company, where the Brunson mill now stands. 

In 1898 the residence of Mrs. Kesiah Roberts on 
the west side of North Main Street, about where her 
present one now stands, burned. Next the millinery 
shop and nearby law ofiice of L. J. Patty burned, 
supposedly from the g-as having been left burning-, 
and comingf on too strong-. 

The John Jeffries livery barn, on the morning- of 
July 26, 1905, burned, taking- with it Joseph Hornbak- 
er's blacksmith shop, M. L. Long-'s shoe shop, and Z. 
Warren's lumber house and privy, and charring- and 
scorching- Isaac N. Beeson's meat market and John C. 
Stanton's barn. Heroic efforts of the bucket brigfade 
kept it from spreading- further east. The fire started 
in the hay mow. The Westfield Chemical Eng-ine 
Company being telephoned for, came down flying- and 
did efficient service. 


The residence of Martin L. Long- on the west side 
of North Main Street, where W. A Puckett's residence 
now stands, was the next to burn, and caug-ht by a 
kerosene lamp being- overturned. Another fire was 
an out house near the old residence of Jonathan 

Other minor fires which were exting-uished were: 
Emmanuel Harold's residence, southeast corner of 
South Main Street and Vine Alley; the Moffitt resi- 
dence on the east side of North Main Street; Jona- 
than Johnson's old residence; L. J. Patty's residence 
building- on north side of East Main Cross Street; the 
Hawkins store building- on the southwest corner of 
Main and Main Cross Streets, occupied by Carl E. 
Thomas at that time; a residence in the northwest 
part of town, and September 13, 1910, Leander Brun- 
son's saw mill roof. Sometime back of these last was 
that of the middle room of the Bond Block, at night. 
The floor caug-ht near the stove and a hole was burned 
through it. 

In 1884, the second story floor of the store build- 
ing- on the southwest corner of Main and Main Cross 
Streets, then occupied by Jessup & Warren, caught 
fire at some unknown time from the stove pipe, but 
after burning- awhile without a blaze, went out of its 
own accord. 

On the first day of March, 1911, the residence of 
Miles O. Cox took fire, burning- quite a hole throug-h 
the roof, but it was exting-uished by the bucket 


The First House Painted 

The Crag^o residence building- on the northeast 
corner of South Main Street and Vine Alley, orig-inally 
standing further north on that lot, with the side to 
the street, and which has since been reweather- 
boarded, was the first painted house, occupied at the 
time by the builder's widow, who kept a boarding" 
house. It was much weather beaten and cost her 
forty dollars to paint it nice and white, and with the 
chimney tops painted red, it made quite an appear- 
ance. The widow owner's name was Bathsheba 
Harvey. The painter's name was William S. Warren. 

John D» Hopkins and Joshua Coshat 

These were two eccentric characters here in 
former times, though not residents, yet making- fre- 
quent visits. The first, the roving- "g-ood g-athering-" 
preacher, who appeared to have been brig-ht at some 
time, but his mind was out of balance. He traveled 
afoot, and barefooted in warm weather, and was 
known nearly everywhere. He was a large man of 
pleasing, smiling nature. In cold weather he wore a 
long- overcoat, made by himself of scraps of various 
colors sewed tog-ether. He called it Joseph's coat. 

Mr. Hopkins preached on the street and left 
appointments to preach at long- intervals, and would 
come up to time. In one case he set his time five 
years, and it was all forgfotten, but he came promptly 


to time. He sang- his songs, some of which he com- 
posed himself, and would be given little contributions. 
He was entertained through sympathy. During the 
war he enlisted in the Seventeenth Indiana Regiment, 
and made for himself a breast plate of a plow shear. 
One day he notified them that he was going to a 
certain post, and they let him go. The poor man 
dropped out after a time and was supposed to be 

Joshua Coshat 

The other character was of sound mind, but odd 
and of a sponging disposition, and having immigrated 
from North Carolina was acquainted with many here 
who came from there and made periodical visits, 
staying at each place till they tired of him. Some- 
times he would bring as many as five young horses to 
be kept, and was particular about his fare and 
complained about so many not having their wheat 
threshed, he was tired of eating corn bread. Coming 
to our house once, he said: "Haven't you got your 
wheat threshed yet?" At another time when he came 
mother and father were away from home, and he told 
sister what he wanted for dinner. He said: "I want 
'flour' bread, ham meat and eggs fried, and coffee," 
all of which was fixed for him. 

The people tired of Mr. Coshat, and we got rid of 
him this way: There was one of our neighbors he 
never visited, Coshat owing him an old debt made in 


North Carolina. We knew this neig-hbor wished to see 
him, and when Mr. Coshat came around ag-ain with 
his retinue of colts, mother sent the writer over to 
Barnaby Newby's to tell him Joshua Coshat had 
come. Mr. Newby immediately came over to dun 
him, and Coshat knew we had sent for him; and that 
was the last time we ever saw old Joshua Coshat. 

A Squirrel and Woodpecker Tale 

Many years ago a man of this vicinity, since be- 
coming a citizen of Carmel, and now not living, went 
hunting and took his gun along. Spying a squirrel 
on the side of a tree, he fired, killing it, and the bullet 
glancing from the tree, struck and killed a red headed 
woodpecker on another tree! Should a man have 
made a business of hunting from the time of the build- 
ing of the great Pyramid down to the digging of our 
"big ditch", he probably would never have made such 
a "hit." 

Another hunting incident was that of a young 
man with a fine rifle, steel barrel, curly maple stock, 
ornamented with thirty pieces of sterling silver. He 
was not much of a marksman, and meeting with his 
first squirrel on the limbs of a tree, placed the already 
cocked rifle on the limb of a bush and was in the act of 
getting his eyes down to take sight when he accident- 
ally pulled the trigger before taking sight, and lo! 
and behold! the squirrel fell to the ground, kicking 


till dead, and the young" man stood awhile amazed. 
He hunted no more that day and went home with his 
g-ame while his credit was g-ood as a marksman. 

The First Suicide 

Perhaps not far from 1840, the people were 
shocked by hearing of the suicide of Mrs. Anna Bond, 
wife of Ornon Bond, by hanging, being the first one 
to go in this manner. 

The Simeon Hawkins incident occurred about 
1876. He was shot in the head at his home, in a shed 
at the barn, and did not die for some weeks. He had 
been at Indianapolis that day, and he said that a man 
by the name of Jones followed him home and shot 
him. Some thoug-ht it a case of suicide, but perhaps 
no one will ever know this side of the resurrection. 
Mr. Hawkins was genial and clever, an enterprising 
citizen, and a kinder and more obliging man perhaps 
could not be found. 

Some time during the seventies, or eighties, the 
suicides of Isom Wickersham, Noah Stafford, by 
hanging, and that of Jesse Lancaster, by cutting his 
throat with a pocket knife, occurred. Ill health was 
supposed to be the cause in the latter case. 

Then on the twentieth of May, 1898, was the 
suicide of Martin Lanham, by drinking wood alcohol. 

The last and recent case was that of Hiram 
Minting, who hanged himself in his barn, on the 17th 


of August, 1908. He had lost his wife sometime be- 
fore, and I think he left a note saying- he was tired of 

Shooting Incidents Not Fatal 

Along in the sixties and seventies, there were 
three cases of shooting, neither one fatal. The first 
was that of Carey Harrison, who was supposed to be 
a rebel sympathizer, and while preaching in the Hill 
Church, was shot in the arm from an open window, 
supposedly by some returned soldier, in 1863 or 1864 
during the war. 

The second case was in the seventies, when 
Sylvanus Comer, who was in the covered bridge over 
the river at Broad Ripple, on his way home from the 
city after dark, was shot by a robber. The shot 
nipped a little piece from the rim of his ear. 

The third was that of some water melon tres- 
passers in the Poplar Ridge settlement, who were 
fired on from a shot gun. 

The Tragedy 

The only one to chronicle was the double and 
fatal shooting, which occurred in the John Jeffries 
livery barn, on the eighth of June, 1900. The victims 
being T. J. Johnson, an eccentric and defiant street 
preacher, called "Cyclone" Johnson, and William 
Frank Carey, the constable, who had arrested and 


taken him to this place for trial before Esquire Collins 
for some offense. In some manner a melee developed 
and shooting commenced with the above results. 

Mr. Johnson was considered by many as only an 
adventurer, who among- other things did not look 
askance at, or eschew, collections. 


The first case of drowning in this vicinity was 
that of Miss Harold, daughter of Samuel Harold, Sr, 
She was drowned about 1840, while trying to ford 
Cold Creek at the Wilkinson Ford, northeast of the 
cemetery. She had been away working for some 
family, and on Saturday started for home horseback, 
meeting a swollen creek. No doubt, her joyful 
anticipation of home caused her to run the risk of 
trying to cross over. But thy stream. Cold Creek, 
lay between her and the happiness of her home. She 
ventured in a little too far down where the water was 
deeper, and the horse swimming over, the empty 
saddle gave the alarm. She could not be found then, 
but was given up as drowned, and was not found for 
three weeks, when she was found in a drift. 

In 1842 or 1843 there was a case of near drowning 
in Eagle Creek. My parents, returning horseback 
from a meeting, got into deep water, mother dropping 
the baby, which was carried under a log or drift, but 
was rescued. 


The next case was that of a Smith boy from this 
vicinity who was drowned in the river below the 
wag"on bridgfe at Broad Ripple about 1857. He was 
the g-rand son of Jirah Smith. Joseph Lloyd, one of 
our citizens, came so near drowning- in the same deep 
water, that he was bobbing- under and his hat floating- 
down stream, when William Pike swam in and rescued 

The next case was in the sixties, when John 
Barker, a young- man of Carmel, was drowned in 
White River east of here while in swimming, probably 
being- seized with cramps. 

The fourth case of drowning- was that of Charles 
Harvey, a young- man of Carmel and son of Henry 
Harvey, the wag-on maker. It occurred in the sixties 
perhaps and in the same place where the Barker boy 

The fifth was the pathetic case of the drowning- 
of Mrs. Mellie Hussey, wife of Frank Hussey, in the 
river near Broad Ripple Park, in 1907. She g-ot into 
deep water, sank and was broug-ht ashore after life 
was extinct. 

Other Accidents and Happenings 

Sometime in the forties, in tearing- down our old 
log- cabin, John Phelps, Jr., and another man were up 
on corners tumbling- ofl" log-s, and the former was 
thrown down along- with a log", but was not very 
badly hurt. 


About this time occurred the death of Mrs. tJrsely 
Lanham, wife of Thomas Lanham, near the Robert 
Lancaster farm. She was in the g-arden g-athering- 
cucumbers, when a limb from a dead beech tree fell 
and struck her head. It was a pathetic case; so 
sudden. Her children g-athered around crying-, "Oh, 
my mother! Oh, my mother!" 

Another accident, wonderful but not fatal, was 
the case of a daughter of William Slater, perhaps 
about 1845. She was riding- a young- horse on a road 
through the woods, and was thrown, her head striking- 
the spur roots of a beech tree, scattering- some of her 
brains. She recovered, but her physician said she 
must never go to school anymore. 

In 1847 or 1848, Nathan Newby, residing- about 
two miles southwest of Carmel, was badly hurt by his 
horse falling on him. A g-athering- in his thigh ensued 
and, after lingfering- a few weeks, he died. 

There is one old citizen yet living- in Carmel who 
in the past met with so many accidents, I will relate 
them. The first was about 1834 when a little boy 
sitting- barefoot on the clay hearth of the log: cabin 
before a large log- fire, with the old cat in his lap, 
when the top log- with its live coals rolled down upon 
the side of one of his feet. His mother pulled his 
foot from under the log-, leaving- some of the skin of 
his foot adhering to the log-, and some live coals to 
his feet. He said to his mother: "It's a fine thing it 
did not roll on the old cat." 


After this, in walking- near the edgfe of the floor 
where it was lain only partly across the room of the 
second story of a building-, and looking upward at 
some object, he accidentally stepped off with one 
foot, falling head foremost on the edge of an uprig-ht 
barrel on the lower floor and cutting his head so his 
skull bone could be seen, and leaving a pool of blood 
on the floor. A few stitches broug-ht the g-ash to- 
g-ether. Next he fell from a mulberry tree, and was 
not much hurt. At another time he had his hand 
burned in the flax fiasco previously related. 

While yet a boy he stepped upon a rusty nail and 
took cold in his foot and lay abed quite awhile. 
Then in 1853, he ag-ain stepped upon a rusty nail, 
causing quite a painful wound. In 1847 he was acci- 
dentally shot in the hand with an iron pointed arrow 
from a cross-bo w^ In 1853 a piece of timber flew out 
from a twining lathe, striking him on the mouth and 
breaking- a front tooth out. 

In the late fifties, he was experimenting with an 
empty two g-allon tin can, from which alcohol had 
just been emptied. By holding- a match above it, the 
alcohol adhering- to the gummy inside of the can 
would catch and burn; then he held a match over it, 
and lowered it slowly to see how far away it would 
catch, not thinking- of the fact that sitting- on the 
stove hearth it had become hot. A mass of flame 
shot up to the ceiling, burning- his face, locks, mus- 
tache, eyebrows and eyelashes ofl:. He rubbed his 
face all over with flour. Wasn't he a pretty looking- 


aspect? His wife was across the street and when she 
came in she cried: "Moral — Don't monkey with a hot 
alcohol can," 

In 1898 he melted a lot of scraps of solder in a 
ladle on the cook stove, and the solder inadvertently 
contained a cartridge. He was bending- over it after 
the solder melted when the cartridg-e let g"o, scattering- 
the solder all over the room, his spectacles saving- 
his eyes. He was knocked down and run over by a 
bug-g-y at two different times here, and was struck by 
a street car in Indianapolis, and by an interurban car 
here without being- hurt. Also, at one time, returning- 
from the city, he was sitting- on g-oods piled above the 
top of the wag-on bed, when the wheels struck an ob- 
stacle as they were coming- down hill and he was 
thrown forward to the g-round without being- hurt and 
not even letting- g-o his hold on a bottle of Damar 

Later than this he came so near being- run over by 
a freig-ht eng-ine at our Monon Station, that before he 
jumped from the track the cow catcher almost struck 
him. The eng-ineer reversed the eng-ine, and Thomas 
E. Carey shouted, "Look out!" either of which not 
having- been done, he would have been struck. But 
when a small boy he climbed to the top of the ladder 
serving- for the stairway in the log- cabin and fell 
throug-h, breaking- an arm — but it was the arm of his 
mother's flax spinning- wheel! 

Along- about the seventies, Nancy J. West, wife 

of Thomas "West, was fatally burned by her clothing' 
g-etting" afire in some manner. She lingered awhile 
before dying. 

About 1844, a boy on the farm now owned by 
Jonathan Johnson, was chopping the top of a stump 
when the ax g"lancing" struck his nephew, William 
Clampitt, cutting- a g"ash in his cheek, next to his 

In 1853, Albert K. Warren, then about three years 
old, in some manner broke his left arm, and before it 
g^ot entirely well, fell from a log" breaking" it over 
agfain. Then about 1868, when fifteen years old, he 
was thrown from a colt, breaking his other arm and 
g^angrene setting in, it turned black and his physician 
said he would not live over forty-eig-ht hours, but he 
is living" yet. His arm rotted off at his shoulder joint, 
where there was for awhile but a little lig"ament con- 
necting" it with his body, which they cut off, freeing" 
him from the arm. The mortification g"ot to his 
shoulder blade, which protruded so the doctor had to 
saw a piece of it off in order for the place to heal, 
which it finally did, leaving" him with but his left arm, 
and it not quite straig"ht, having" been twice broken. 
When well, he paid attention to his education, be- 
coming" a gfood pensman, and later g"raduating" at 
Purdue University, after which his parents removed 
to Zionsville, and he was elected surveyor of Boone 
County two terms. 

After this he went to California, where he was 

employed as surveyor for a larg-e land irrig-ating 
company at a g"ood salary and later was promoted to 
office work. He is now married and has an interest- 
ing- family, and is in g^ood circumstances financially. 

During- the time when a blacksmith shop stood on 
the Nicholas Quick residence lot, a man wanting- a 
piece of g-as pipe bent to a curve, tamped it full of as 
dry dirt as he could g-et, driving- wooden plugfs in the 
ends, sent it to that shop for the smith to heat and 
bend, and sending- a boy after it, he came back report- 
ing- that it shot! There being moisture enoug-h to 
g-enerate steam, it bursted the pipe, and the shop was 
filled with dust. Nobody was hurt, but the smith's 
face turned a little pale. 

Elwood Rayl, west of Carmel, had a hand torn off 
or mashed, by a sorg-hum mill, so that it had to be 
amputated, perhaps in the nineties. 

About 1866, Thomas Hamar met his death near 
Pleasant Grove, being- caug-ht between his wag-on and 
a tree. 

Perhaps at a later date than the above, Jesse 
Newby, son of Jacob Newby, was killed by a saw log- 
rolling- over him in the "big- woods" north of Carmel. 

Sometime in the sixties. Dr. L. S. Campbell was 
kicked by his horse, while out on the road, so badly 
that he lay in bed for some time. 

In the sixties or seventies, Kearney Cotton, a 
colored man, while down in a well on the farm of 
Henry Harold, had a kettle of dirt drop down striking- 
him on the head, but his skull bone was too thick to 
be crushed. 


Perhaps in the seventies or eig-hties William 
Huffman was badly hurt by being" run over by a 
reaper, making some cuts. 

In 1910 Gilbert Gray, while sojourning in the 
West, was kicked by a g'un, breaking his collar bone. 

In the early seventies William Hamar, son of James 
Hamar, living" near Pleasant Grove, accidentally shot 
himself fatally. He was rabbit hunting" and in climb- 
ing a rail fence let the hammer of his shot gun strike 
a rail. 

Coral E. Campbell, son of Thomas H. Campbell, 
was killed in the "big" woods" north of Carmel, about 
1883 or 1884. In cutting" a tree, a limb fell striking" 
his head, thoug-h I believe he lingered a few days. 

At John E. Buck's saw mill, while running" here, 
Hiram Minting" was crippled by being" crowded by a 
saw log. 

A few years ag-o, Albert Moffitt, a farmer in the 
southeast settlement, met his death by being thrown 
from his wag"on. 

Jacob C. Green having felled a poplar tree near 
old town run, southwest, and holding" the ax on his 
arm, a limb broken from another tree fell striking" the 
ax handle, throwing" the ax ag"ainst his leg" and cutting" 
quite a g"ash. 

In the seventies Daniel Warren, Jr., was kicked 
by a horse and rendered unconscious for awhile. 


Sometime during- the war, Sylvanus Carey had a 
leg" broken by a saw log- rolling- from the wagon when 
about two miles south of Carmel. 

At an early date a boy in the settlement west 
pinched the pith out of a piece of green alder and 
had his face over it while pouring- it full of melted 
lead; it shot and he was badly burned. 

In April, 1910, Nelson Wise had his hand hurt by 
some kind of machinery. 

October 15, 1910, Mr. Ihndris was kicked by a 
colt at the time of our horse show. 

On the 17th of March, 1910, the two following- 
accidents occurred: Fred Brown had two fingers 
torn off while adjusting a seed sower and Artie Myers 
had a hand mang-led while helping- to manipulate a 
cross cut saw. 

In January, 1910, Bert Parsley, living- on one of 
the Kinzer farms, was severely kicked by a horse, 
which knocked him a distance of some feet. 

In the early part of 1911 John Binford had both 
ankles hurt by the falling- of a scaffold on which he 

Mr. Georg-e St. Clair, living on the Daniel Warren 
fruit farm, had a leg- broken in 1910, when a cherry 
log-, which was sawed off, rolled upon it. 

Lightning Strokes in Carmel 

Sometime in the seventies the log" residence of 
Jacob Newb3^ on the north side of West Main Cross 
Street, east of the William Peele residence, was 
struck by a strong charge of lig'htning' during- a very 
hard rain, The lightning entered a south window up 
stairs, going north and downward to the cook stove 
in the kitchen, where Mr. Newby's son, Job, was 
sitting-, striking- him and tearing- off a shoe and sock, 
and leaving- the latter fast, cramped in the crack of a 
board of the hard ash flooring- which it made in going- 
throug-h the floor to the ground. The boy recoved. 

Lig-htning- struck our present Hig-h School Build- 
ing not long- after its completion, but did not do very 
much damag-e. 

A few years ago the front part of the hardware 
building- of Newlin & Thomas, now occupied by O. W. 
Nutt, was struck twice in the same place; thus dis- 
proving the saying- that "Lig-htning- never strikes 
twice in the same place." 

About 1905 lightning- came down a tall shade tree 
at the residence of the writer, on lot ten. West Main 
Cross Street, a part leaping- to a nearby kitchen stove 
flue, ran down the pipe to the stove and away to the 
ground, down the g-as pipe. It was a terrific charg-e, 
and sounded like a mag-azine of dynamite had ex- 
ploded. The main part of it went to the lig-htningf 
rod, directly under which myself and wife were; the 


latter being" upstairs and near the rod, and neither 
one felt any effect. This shows the efficiency of 
lig'htning' rods, if properly put up, and connected 
with the moist g-round. The fact that a heavy charg-e 
passed over the rod was evidenced by some shing-les 
being- torn off where it made a bend to reach another 
roof. The stove pipe was bursted, and an odor like 
burnt powder pervaded the room. The rod was too 
far away to carry away the whole charg-e which came 
down the tree. 

Great Wreck and Other Railroad 

On the morning- of January 27th, 1890, at 7:50 
o'clock occurred the great wreck on the Monon, at 
the trestle bridg-e over the Wilkinson Run, about a 
half mile north of Carmel. The bridg-e has since been 
replaced by a fill. The train consisted of the eng-ine 
and tender, combination bag-g-ag-e and smoking- car, 
two coaches and a Pullman sleeper and was in charg-e 
of Abel C. Ang-le, conductor, and Thomas Kline, 
eng-ineer, and was running- south bound at the rate of 
thirty miles an hour. The g-round being- frozen and 
the rails on the convex side of the curve needing- 
raising-, it was done by "shimes" being- placed under 

A rail was turned over on that side of the track, 
derailing- some part of the train, which by its momen- 
tum carried it over the ties on the trestle work, 

tearing- up the track, and breaking- down tlie trestle. 
The sleeper turned over, and slid down the g"rade 
just at the bridge, g-rinding a rabbit to pieces. The 
two coaches were precipitated, the ladies' coach into 
the run on the east side aud almost totally destroyed 
by fire from the stove; the other on the west side. 

The bag-g-age car turned over a little further south 
on the west side. The engine kept the track and 
passed on further south than the bag-gage car, carry- 
ing- the tender, which turned on its side, wrenching- 
the two near wheels of the engine off the track and it 
stopped. The dead were Mrs. Nettie Eubanks, of 
Broad Ripple, age 36 years; Charles O. Deming-, ag-e 
55 years, of Frankfort, Ind., who ling-ered awhile here 
at John A. Haines'; Miss Mary E. Hoover, ag-e 24 
years, of Horton, Ind.; Miss Hattie Hensley, ag-e 20 
years, of Cyclone, Ind.; Madg-e and Lola Oldham, ag-es 
8 and 6 years, of Sheridan, Ind. The mother of these 
children was pretty badly hurt, and several other 
persons to some extent. 

When the Monon Railroad Company had finished 
laying its rails throug-h Carmel in 1882, a party of our 
citizens. Dr. McShane, Elwood E. Hains, William W. 
Warren and some others had taken a small car used 
for moving- rails in track laying-, north of the "big- 
cut," and were on it running- back this way on the 
down gfrade, it struck a spike someone had driven 
between rails at a joint, after the car had passed up. 
The car, upon striking- the spike, commenced turning- 

over forward throwing some of them out who had 
presence of mind enoug-h to catch and prevent it from 
deadfalling- the whole party. 

Soon after the Monon trains commenced running-, 
William Hutton, in driving across the track at the 
Main Cross Street crossing, with his one horse wagon, 
was thrown from his wagon, which was struck by a 
fast train and knocked to pieces and scattered along 
the track north. His horse being freed ran on and 
Mr. Hutton not being hurt very much recovered in a 
few weeks. 

Not long after the above incident John Kemp 
was struck by an engine or car, near our Monon 
station, but was not much hurt. 

Later Henry Metsker, engineer on a freight 
engine, was killed a few miles south, by his engine 
being derailed by striking a bull on the track. After 
this, happened the near accident at the Monon station 
described on a previous page. 

On the night of January 30th 1899; Harry Mor- 
ford's buggy was struck by a fast southbound train, 
at the Monon crossing on West Main Cross Street, 
and torn to pieces, his horse killed, and himself left 
unconscious, his legs being frozen when he was found 
next morning. He was taken to J. W. Morrow's and 
died that evening. 

At a date not long after the Monon trains com- 
menced running, a freight running too fast, left the 
rails just south of where the "great wreck'' occurred, 
but no one was hurt. 


On the nig-ht of February 15th, 1906, where the 
interurban track crosses the road near the cemetery, 
north of Carmel, Frank Cook a former citizen, and 
another man attempted to cross the track in a covered 
hack, not seeing- and perhaps not hearing- the car 
which demolished their wagon, killing- them both, and 
I think their team also. 

The next accident was at West Main Cross Street 
crossing of the Monon, the same place where that of 
Hutton and Morford occurred. It was that of our 
citizen, Henry W. Henley, and wife, on the morning- 
of March 2nd, 1906. They had started in a bug-gy to 
visit some of their children in the Poplar Ridg-e 
settlement, and when crossing- the track, a Monon 
fast train, I think south bound, struck their bugg-y, 
killings them both and destroying- the bug-g-y, but I 
believe the horse escaped. They had anticipated 
seeing- their children, but alas! Who knows his fate? 
Whether he shall meet his death by railroad accident, 
disease, or be stricken down by the flash of heaven! 

In 1907 a citizen of Carmel was walking- south- 
ward on the east side of the interurban right of way, 
north of O. W. Nutt's hardware store, intending- to 
cross the track, but just before, and coming- to a 
catch basin of the sewer and g-etting- down to see if 
water was running- in it, forgot the dang-er of cars and 
suddenly started to cross the track just in front of a 
north bound car, and was knocked heels over head on 
a pile of lumber rubbish. The car stopped, the motor- 
man and conductor came out, the latter with memo- 
randum book and pencil, and he was told by the 


victim to go along-, that he was not hurt and would 
make no claim ag-ainst the Company. He never 
found out where the car stuck him. 

In June 1908, William E. Venable, of Carmel, an 
employe of the I. U. Traction Company, fell from the 
top of a car, severely injuring- his back, and being 
otherwise bruised up by the breaking of a trolley he 
had hold of. He claimed the trolley was weakened by 
being already cracked where it broke off. I believe 
this occurred at Tipton. 

On October 26th, 1910, an unknown man was 
struck by an interurban car near the cemetery, and 
bruised up some. On March 17th, 1910, Frank 
Rutherford, of Carmel, was struck by an interurban 
car breaking both legs. Sometime in the nineties a 
Monon locomotive turned over on its side on the 
switch opposite the William Peele residence. There 
were no fatalities. 

The Great Natural Gas Explosion 

The natural gas explosion in the Bond Block in 
Carmel happened March 31st, 1904. There were three 
adjoining buildings, and the furthest west had just 
been fixed up for a barber shop for the Mann boys and 
their stove plumbed for gas. It was not known that 
a connected pipe extending under the middle building 
to where a stove had set in the work part of Mr. 
Bond's furniture shop had been left open at that 
point. The escaping gas had filled the under floor 


spaces of all three buildingfs and the rooms to some 
extent, when Mr. Mann struck a match to lig"ht the 
gas in his stove, let off the whole explosion, throwing" 
shattered glass from all three buildings on the side- 
walk and to the middle of the street, and his face was 
cut by ilying pieces. 

Mr. Bond in the adjoining and middle room was 
thrown up against the ceiling, one of his legs broken 
and he otherwise bruised up. In this same room a 
chair was thrown up against the ceiling with such 
force that one of the rounds penetrated a ceiling 
board and was left sticking there. 

The third and east room was the grocery store of 
Alpheus Parlow. The stove was knocked down, up- 
setting the fire upon the floor, but it was extinguished. 
It was in this room that Miss Bessie Wickersham, 
lady clerk, not much hurt, was dragged out through a 
window. The explosion made quite a mix-up in this 
room, the floor was torn up and on the ground were 
onion sets, cranberries, etc., in confusion, and broken 
glassware and dishes. The stuff was removed, the 
floor relaid and the other goods straightened up. Mr. 
Farlow remained in this room for some time, till 
removing to the room of the Masonic Building, after 
which he died, and his stock was purchased by the 
Thomas boys. 

The whole three buildings of the Bond Block were 
condemned by the Town Board, and it, along with the 
ground, was sold to Allen Myers, who tore down two 


of the worst damag"ed, but the third is still standing- 
at this writing-. The next building east is the present 
Post Office, and the force of the explosion blew the 
g"lass from a window of it into the room, and threw 
down and smashed an oil lamp, which might have 
caused a conflag^ration had it been after nig-ht and 

First Locomotive 

The rails on the Monon were laid throug^h Carmel 
and the first eng^ine and cars passed through on the 
21st of September, 1882, laying- track. 

The first electric car on the I. U. T. Company's 
line passed throug-h Carmel about six o'clock in the 
evening- of October 30, 1903. 

First Natural Gas Well 

Gas was struck eig-ht feet in Trenton Rock, in the 
first well, which was east of the Follett Flouring- 
Mill, February 16th, 1888. Here the limestone lay 96 
feet from the surface. The second well, on the 
William Kinzer farm a little east of Mrs. Rosanna 
Phelps' residence, was drilled into g-as November 
12th, 1888. The depth to limestone rock was 124 feet, 
and throug-h both limestone and shale 830 feet, and 
into Trenton Rock 29 feet, making the whole total 
depth 983 feet, striking- salt water. This well was 
not very good. 

In the third well g-as was struck January 31st, 
1891, throug-h limestone and shale 797 feet, Trenton 
Rock 10 feet, total depth 807 feet, and was a fairly 
g-ood well. Since the above three, very many in 
diverse places have been drilled. 


Justices of the Peace 

The justices from tirst to present, as memory- 
serves, were Esquire Wheeler, Samuel Campbell, 
Thomas Harvey, John West, of Carmel, Nelson Power, 
Isaac Wrig-ht, Isaac W. Stanton, the latter two in 
Carmel, T. J. Appleg^ate, Jonah Fertig-, Pleasant 
Nance, David W. Patty, Levi J. Small, Allison Ballard, 
Riley Craven, the latter four in Carmel, and John R. 
Collins, of Poplar Ridge. 

The Soldiers 

Following" the bombardment of Fort Sumpter and 
when the brave and patriotic boys of this brave land 
offered themselves upon their country's altar to up- 
hold the "Star Spang-led Banner" and flag- of the free 
faster than they could be armed, this vicinity sent a 
g-oodly number, and Carmel was not a whit behind in 
patriotism and sacrifice, being represented by D. W. 
Patty, Isaac W. Stanton, John F. Nutt, Jasper Har- 
ris, Isaac N. Beeson, Sr. , Thomas W. Patty, William 
Pike, William J. Hawkins, Henry H. Harvey, Frank 
A. Hawkins, David M. Connell, Shubel Hedgecock, 
Patrick Perkins, Clark Sheets, James Miller, Jack 
Crews, Elam Crews, Joseph Crews, George Crews, 
John W. Rayl, Jr., William P. Rayl, ElamL. Roberts, 
Asbury Anderson, Isaac Booth, Joseph Lloyd, Samuel 
Carey, James M. Hanes, William Langston, Joseph 
Keene, Samuel McQuarter, Henry Humes, Hamilton 
Bowers, Trav. Bowers and Enos Haines. 


While in service D. W. Patty and J. W. Nutt of 
the Fifth Indiana Cavalry were taken prisoners and 
incarcerated in grim Andersonville, all of whose 
horrors have not yet been told, among- which was the 
"dead line," thirst, starvation, disease and other 
cruelties; but with their inherited hardihood they sur- 
vived it, and after coming: home Mr. Patty was elected 
Sheriff of Hamilton County and Mr. Nutt was later 
appointed postmaster. 

Thomas W. Patty had one leg- shot off by 
a cannon ball or shell at Missionary Ridg-e, but 
survived. Prank A. Hawkins was thougfht to be 
mortally wounded at the battle of Gettysburg- and lay 
all nigfht on the ground near a little stream. It rained 
and he came near drowning- but survived, and was 
elected Clerk of the Court of Hamilton County, Ind. 

William Pike was killed in the battle of Pea 
Ridg-e, Arkansas. David M. Connell was shot by the 
enemy while in detail service. 

The following- soldiers were from this vicinity: 
Frank Hall, Wallace Hall, John Hall, J. W. Nutt, 
Josiah S. Nutt, Sylvester Jessup, William Hunt, 
Georg-e Ellis, W. Frank McShane, Howell T. Eskew, 
William Harold, Sr., William H. Thomas, Isaac J. 
Bales, Gilbert Gray, David Stewart, Allen F. Harold, 
Henry Harvey, Sr., Seth J. Green, Eli Green, Jacob 
C. Green, Isaac J. Green, Joseph Julian, Nathan 
Stanley, John Hussey, Alex. Gray, Frank Hinshaw, 
Samuel Wilson, Zadok Carey, Jonathan Carey, Henry 


Hinshaw, James Parley, Thomas Parley, Lewis 
Parley, George West, Jr., Henry Michener, Samuel 
Michener, Hiram Rooker, James Richardson, Henry 
Richardson, Kin. Rooker, Dr. J. I. Rooker, Perry 
Rooker, J. A. Wise, William Wise and Pulaski Eller. 
Of the above, Sylvester Jessup was disemboweled 
in some battle; William Hunt was wounded, and Seth 
J. Green scalded in the Sultana disaster. 

Noted Persons 

Besides the Andersonville prisoners mentioned 
above, Carmel has another soldier, Seth J. Green, 
who served a time in a confederate prison in Alabama, 
and who was homeward bound on the ill fated steamer. 
Sultana, at the time of the explosion. He was thrown 
into the water with one side of his neck badly scalded. 
Being- a gfood swimmer, he swam till he came to a 
swingfing- branch of a bush, to which he held till 
morning-, when he was picked up by a rescue boat. 

Carmel has another citizen, seventy-nine years 
old, who has never eaten an oyster, nor tasted a bit 
of ice-cream, and who has not drank or used any milk 
or cream, or eaten any butter, cheese, beef, veal or 
mutton for sixty-nine years, and is yet carrying a 
pocket knife without losing for forty-seven years and 
is still using the excellent razor, which he bought 
sixty years ago, but which has since been hollow- 


Carmel has been g-iven as the home of three 
men who have been mentioned as "Who's Who" in 
America: Frank Booth, Dr. Prank Brown and Dr. 
Elwood C. Perisho. 


Our first newspaper, "The Carmel Sig^nal," was 
first issued October 13th, 1889, by L. J. Patty and L. J. 
Small, but after a time Mr. Patty dropped out and it 
was edited and published by L. J. Small, and later by 
Ed E. Small, Vern Patty, Georg-e Bowen and Hal 
Small, each had charg-e of it, but the day of discon- 
tinuance arrived Aug-ust 10th, 1893. 

After this another was published for a short time 
by "Shorty" from Tipton I think called "The Carmel 
Register." Later commenced the "Carmel Star" by 
Verne Patty, and now we have the "Carmel Stan- 
dard," published by Roberts and Patty, which, let us 
hope, may be long" continued. 

School Teachers 

This list from memory will not include all. The 
first by remembrance was Thomas Charles, then 
Jonathan Evans, Cyrus Cook, Charles Lane, the latter 
about 1838, Georg-e Davis, Thomas Symons two terms 
about 1843-4, Miss Anna Melissa Burnside two terms 
about 1844-5, James G. Small two terms, Silas Draper 
about 1847, Nathan H. Mills two terms about 1850, 
Isaac W. Harold, Calvin W. Cook, Benjamin Albert- 


son, Zenas Carey, William W. Chappell, Isaac Cox, 
Miss Rebecca Trueblood, Cyrus N. Hunt, Nathan R. 
Morrow, Elbert Harold, Miss Sallie Clark, John F. 
Haines, Irvin Stanley, David M. Wells and George W. 
Scott. The above list runs but a little past the latter 
days of the old Carmel Academy, which has been torn 



Below is a list of the physicians of Bethlehem, 
now Carmel, from remembrance — some have been for- 
gotten. Early there were women who knew of many 
remedies and preserA^^ed many kinds of herbs, two 
principal ones being Mrs. Charlotte Phelps and Mrs. 
Judith Cook. Then Jonathan Carey was a doctor to 
some extent, and also Nathan Harold. 

In case of bad cuts Nathan Hawkins would be 
sent for to glue up the wound. Later we had Joseph 
Bond, a steam doctor. 

A few regular physicians came and went, whose 
names are not remembered. Then Dr. Woodyard 
located. Perhaps the next were the two Vickrys, 
one of which later was a banker at Tipton. Then Dr. 
Hamilton located, after whom were Drs. L. S. 
Campbell, S. C. Dove, J. S. Losey, J. T. McShane, 
Daniel Carey, a younger Dr. Carey, Dr. Hunt, Jas. I. 
Rooker, C. W. Cook, Dr. Sutphen, George Kane, Dr. 
Baker, Wm. Cain, Zenas Carey, Milton Carey, Dr. 
Woodard, Dr. Abernathy, N. G. Harold, Dr. James, 


Dr. Leavens, C. W. Mendenhall, Dr. Royer, K. C. 
Hershey in 1892, F. C. Hershey in 1894, and Dr. Cooper 
in 1910. 


I will g"ive a list of the ministers of the M. E. 
church as near as memory serves. 

The first was Rev. Kitchen, then the Revs. 
Thomas Colclazer in 1855, Eli Ramel, Wm. Anderson, 
J. S. McCarty, Piper, McMahin, Bowers in the sixties, 
Harrison, Redding-, Georg-e Havens, Martin, Oden, 
Cain, Parr, F. A. Fish, Reed, Howard, E. A. 
McClintock, Holdstock, A. E. Sarah, Hornaday, 
Richey, C. W. Wilkinson, and M. L. Pancher the 
present minister. 

The first minister of the Friends Church was 
Samuel Stafford, and the first recorded minister was 
Asaph Hiatt in 1849, and since, Elizabeth Reynolds, 
Isaac Roberts, Amos Kenworthy, Miss Miers, Mrs. 
Sallie King- and Mr. McFarland, have officiated down 
to the present one, the Rev. Willis Bond. 

The Wesleyans have a church here, but I believe 
do not have a minister stationed here- 


In addition to the Tanyard, and pork packing- 
business heretofore described, Thomas Lig-htfoot was 
our g-unsmith and later Gideon Newby. 

Wool and flax spinning- wheels, and reels were 

staple articles in the early days, and about 1843 
William S. Warren opened up a shop for their manu- 
facture, on the southwest corner of Main and North 
Streets, but soon after 1849 they went into decline, 
and he drifted into other business. 

Cabinet Shops 

The first cabinet work was done by Georg^e Davis 
some by Thomas Mills, then Wm. S. Warren, Calvin 
Bond, Z. Warren, Nutt brothers, and J. M. Nutt. 
About 1840 Thomas Hazel made furniture in the 
country east. 

Wagon Woodwork 

The wagon woodwork men were Mahlon Haines, 
the Patty and Kane boys, Henry Harvey, Sr., and 
later the Hornbakers, Mr. Klice and others. 

About 1853 Simeon Hawkins carried on a reg'ular 
carriagfe and wag^on shop near where Mahlon Day's 
residence stands and about 1855 removed the shop to 
about where the Friends Church now stands. Later 
it was used by Carey and Roberts for their grist mill, 
then by Carey and Dixon for the same, after which it 
was torn down or moved away to make room for the 
church. About 1863 Wm. H. Hedg-ecock carried on a 
regnlar carriag^e and wag"on shop in the building at 
the southwest corner of Main and Main Cross Streets, 
doing his own ironing in a shop on the same lot. 


The Tile Factory 

About 1857 Simeon Hawkins operated a tile 
factory in the building- of the present Jeffries' livery 
barn, which has since been conducted by various 
other parties for several years. 

Shingle Factory 

A shing-le factory for making- cut shing-les was 
operated in the Elliot settlement by Mr. Howell 
Thomas from about 1854 to 1861, doing- much business. 


In the forties, Stephen Macy made tinware in the 
Poplar Ridg-e settlement, but the first tin shop in Car- 
mel was opened up in the Small building- on East 
Main Cross Street by Mr. Alonzo Owen after the 
war and later William P. Hiatt and Larkin Hines 
did tin work. Now the Hawkins Construction Com- 
pany does building-, tin and g-alvanized iron work. 

Carpentry^ Etc* 

Our first carpenters were Thomas Mills, John 
West and Joseph W. Macy. Of late various persons 
have been engfaged in cement block manufacturing-. 

The canning- factory was established here in 1909. 
Wm. S. Warren was the first house painter and paper 
hang-er in the villag-e. 



The first blacksmith in the vicinity was Barnaby 
Newby, one-half mile west, and the second that of 
John Hunt about that far east. 

The first shop in town was that of Franklin Hunt, 
assisted by Martin Phelps. When all was ready for 
work, Mr, Hunt said: "Now, let's make a Jew's harp 
so we can say that was the first thingf made on an 
anvil in Bethlehem," and they made it. The next 
smith was Moses Puckett on the John W. Rayl resi- 
dence lot in 1844; then there were Enos Haines, 
Joseph P. Cook with a fine shop on the Small Drugf 
Store lot, and afterward used for a cooper shop by 
James Stanton. 

Then the next smith was Richard Georg-e, followed 
by Joseph Helcher about 1856, John Patty Sr., Isaac 
W. Patty, Joab Parsley, Isaac Roberts 1863, Isaac 
Booth, David M. Connel, Samuel Vare, John A. Haines, 
David Stewart, Albert A. Haines, Enoch Roberts, Eli 
Binford, William M. Harold, Mahlon Cook, Wilford 
Maple, Sewell Green, Joseph Hornbaker, John Jef- 
fries' different smiths, Wm. D. Stone, Mr. Ziliox, B. P. 
Akers, Mr. Robbins, down to the present ones. 

Among"st the staple articles smiths made were 
pot trammels, cranes, S hooks, pot hooks, shovels 
and tongs, dog" irons, cow bells, log" chains, mattocks, 
grub and planter's hoes. A mattock was not very 
easy to make and one of the first smiths was hammer- 
ing" an odd shaped piece of iron, when a neighbor 


asked what he was making", he said, "I am trying to 
make a mattock, but when I g-et it done maybe it will 
be a dog" iron." 

The smiths in early times made horse shoes and 
nails from whatever iron they happened to have, old 
wagfon tire or flat bar of any kind, "drawing- it out." 
They made their own coal, charcoal, burning big" coal 
kilns rig-ht in the street. 

Shoe Makers 

About our first shoemaker was Georg^e Gibson in 
his log" cabin residence a little west of John Jeffries' 
residence. Then Jesse Georg"e, John W. Crews, 
Benjamin Harold, the latter working" in the country, 
Warren Brooks, John Swaim, John Florer, M. L. 
Long", Harry Bartholomew, Wm. P. Hiatt, Mr. Gunkel, 
Larkin Hines, S. A. Marlmee, down to J. C. Cross. 


Joseph Wilson was perhaps our first harness 
maker, and later I. W. Stanton, Frank Wrig"ht, Henry 
L. Georg"e, Alfred W. Comer, B. F. Watkins, Riley 
Craven, R. L. Georg"e, down to Al Cross. 

Window Sash 

Our first sash maker was Asaph Hiatt in the 
country north. Later, here in the town, were Eli 
Small, Sr., and Josiah Hiatt, 



William Frost was our tailor in the forties, and 
later turned dentist. A Mr. Patterson tailored here 


Jacob Green, Sr., and sons, Joseph and John, 
and Nathan Hawkins were first coopers, but after 
them Thomas Mills, James Stanton and Timothy 
Smith made barrels, tubs, etc. 


The cases of burg^lary of business houses into 
which entrance was grained were six, one being the 
store of Elijah King- in which case considerable goods 
were taken, and some of which were afterwards found 
in corn shocks and other places. J. E. King's store 
was entered after this, when some clothing, and 
change left in the money drawers of the store, and 
that of the Post Office, which was in the same build- 
ing, were taken. 

L. J. Small's drug store was entered and a con- 
siderable lot of jewelry taken. The store of D. W. 
Kinzer was entered by burglars but they were scared 
off without booty I believe. The Citizen's Bank was 
entered but they failed to get into the safe. W. A. 
Puckett's Grocery Store was burglarized a few years 
ago, but not much taken. 


Then there were two cases of attempted burcflary 
in which they were not successful in entering^, one of 
the drug" store, the other of the store of Z. Warren. 

Birds of Early Times 

I now wish to forg"ive the black birds for taking" 
up the corn, and any other incidents previously 
referred to, including- the episode from the tree top. 

In early times birds were much more numerous 
than now, and upon entering- the leafy shaded woods 
in the springf or summer, one would be charmed by 
their songfs. There was one species which repeated 
at intervals a musical and long- drawn out phrase 
which seemed to be E-phraim cit-it-it-te, emphasizing- 
the first E. 

Then as Mr. Woollen says, "The flicker with his 
flick-ah, flick-ah;" the goldfinch with "per-chic-o-vee, 
per-chic-o-vee, per-di-ta, per-di-ta, sweet, sweet;" 
the oriole with what seems to say, "come to me, 
dearie; come to me, dearie" were heard in the 
wildwood. Mr. Woollen notes a case in which the male 
was singing- his song-, and soon after, his dearie, the 
female bird, came. 

The woodpecker says, "Bruce, Bruce," but the 
quail says it's "Bob White, Bob White." 

A little g-irl, disconsolate because her big- sister 
Susan, whom she called "Tu-ie" had removed, told 
her mother the little birds say "Tu-ie, Tu-ie," 


Observe the little torn tit, the beautiful red bird, 
and the humming- bird, the latter moving- its wing-s 
with such inconceivable velocity. There is one 
species of birds we mig-ht call lazy. It is the cow 
bird, which lays its eg-g-s in the nest of some other 
species, thus avoiding- the tedium of sitting upon 
them. Isn't it sharp! 

There are many common thing-s upon which we 
do not properly reflect, birds not being- an exception. 

Birds of mig-ration return north in flocks of all 
males first and then separate, distributing- themselves 
so that only one or two are left in a locality and sing- 
their songs of praise, awaiting- the arrival of the 
females, when they mate and build their nests. In 
this instinct of distribution we see the desig-n of an 
Almig-hty Hand. 

Observe the robin which likes to build its nest 
near human habitations, see how securelj'^ it cements 
its nest to the foundation as a security against storms 
and how like those of others the inside of its nest is 
as true a circle as if scribed by a human architect. 
Ask a little bird how he makes them so round and 
true and he will not tell you, but if he could talk he 
could say, "I sit down in it, and move round and 
round, truing- and smoothing- it with my breast." 
"O, little bird, little bird, who taug-ht thee this?" 

The robin sings his plaintiff song- before g-oing- 
to roost, then selects a limb and putting- his head 
under his wing- trusts to his Creator for safety till the 
morn, when he ag-ain sing-s his ditty of praise. 


Solomon says: "Go to the ant, thou slug-g-ard, 
consider her ways, and be wise," and we might say, 
"Go to the little robin and learn to be worshipful." 

O, little birds, who put these song-s in your 
mouths, and O, little boys, how can you bear to kill 
or rob the nests of these innocent and happy little 

A boy throws a stone and kills a little warbler, 
which was created by an Almighty Hand, and it falls 
to the ground, never having committed any sin, or 
done the boy any harm in its life, and has taken its 
last flight, and sang its last song and its fall, with the 
identity of its slayer, will be noted. There it lies 
limpid, and all the talent and philosophy of all the 
doctors and scientific men of the world, with command 
of the wealth of a thousand Rockefellers or Pierpont 
Morgans, could not put the life back into this little 

In this connection I will relate the story of a 
little boy and a bird, which happened very many 
years ago. An American Missionary to Ceylon by 
the name of Winslow had a son, little Charles L. 
Winslow, who while there in that sunny land, the 
home of the cinnamon and palm, took a great liking 
to the native birds at their home, and after returning 
to America, he took sick and died. While lying a 
corpse a strange bird came and lingered near looking 
so like the native birds of their tropical home that 
great notice was taken of the circumstance, and a 

poet wrote some beautiful and pathetic lines in 
regard to it, the heading- and first four lines being- all 
in remembrance. They were: 


A bird came o'er the ocean, 

From the far off tropic isles. 
Where fanned by the palm tree's motion, 

Perennial summer smiles. 

Little boys and girls, feed the little birds which 
frequent your homes. 

Apostrophe to Early Days 

Before giving a list of the dead of Bethlehem- 
Carmel, and another of the old pioneers of the vicin" 
ity, to close this history, I wish by way of illustration 
of earlier times, to revert to the interesting days of 
youth, the morning of life, when all around seemed so 
beautiful and fresh, and when" in the wild-wood hunt- 
ing ginseng, the wild bees sucking honey from wild 
rose flowers, the numerous birds were full of songs, 
the owl would hoot, the pheasant beat, and perchance 
a deer rudely disturbed would jump up from its rest- 
ing place and run for life, flopping its tail at such a 
lively rate, — and then the sugar camp! This is not an 
allegorical representation, but is a true picture, yet 
maybe distance lends a little enchantment to the 
view; but oh, the memory of the long ago, when so 
often, with George Harvey and Bennett and "Ecca," 
going swimming in, or piscicapturing along the banks 
of Cold Creek. 


The Dead of Carmel 

Below is a list of the dead of Bethlehem-Carmel 
who have g-one the dolorous way, thoug-h not in proper 
rotation and without date till July, 1890: 

Mrs. Miriam Phelps 

John Phelps, Sr. 

John Phelps, Jr. 

Andrew L. Warren 

Hoover Warren 

Caleb Harvey 

Miss Jennie Harvey 

Clinton Harvey 

John W. Crew's wife 

Miss Mary Crews 

Josiah E. King 

Mrs. Harriet King 

J. E. King's three children 

Martin Phelps 

John Peele 

Jesse Carey 

Miss Asenith Harvey 

Two children of I. W. Stanton 

John W. Crews' father 

Miss Emma Carey 

Joe Lloyd, Jr. 

Elijah King 

Miss Birdie Wilkinson 

Child of Wm. Wilkinson, Jr. 

D. W. Kinzer's child 

Miss Ehza Oliphant 

Miss Lennie Carey 

Isaac Robert's boy 

Levi Carey 

Herchell Carey 

Levi Carey's child 

Charlie Harvey 

Three children of Martin Plielps Isaac J. Bales' child 

Stranger at Abner Atkinson's John P. Nutt's three children 

Josiah S. Nutt 

Mrs. Nancy Nutt 

I. N. Beeson's wife 

Dr. Dove's first wife 

J. E. Strattan 

William Wilkinson, Jr. 

Miss Eosa Wilkinson 

Mrs. Logan 

Little girl at Jesse Small's 

William J. Hawkin's child 

William A. Puckett's child 

David M. Connel's child 

Isaac W. Patty's child 

Mrs. Diana West 

Isaac W. Harold's child 

James Stanley 

Miss Mary Ann Newby 

Harvey L. Davis' wife 

Mrs. Ella Comer 

Jesse Newby 

Thomas E. Carey's first wife 

Eli Binford's child 

Elam Robert's child 

Ben Ball's wife 


Mr. Richardson's child 

Mrs. Nancy Sharp 

Cal. Smith's wife 

Mrs. Eacliel Newby 

Miss Lizzie S. Harold 

D. Frank Lee 

Wm. M. Harold's two children 

Mrs. Ida Dixon 

Mrs. Eliza Small 

Wm. P. Dixon's three children 

Allen Moon's boy 

Mrs. Addie Harvey 

Mrs. Nancy J. West 

Andrew Harold 

D. W. Patty's child 

Dr. D. Carey's little girl 

Miss Saide Carey 

Rev. J. S. Mccarty's child 

Charlie Long 

Mrs. John Patty, Sr, 

Frank H King's three children 

Eli Small, Sr. 

Frank Gallagher's child 

John Bown 

Nathan Hawkins 

David Swaim's child 

Levi A. Haines' child 

David M. Connel 

William Hedgecock's child 

Timothy Smith's child 

Dr. Daniel Carey 

Z, Warren's three children — * 

Mrs. Mollie Small 

Dr. J. T. McShane's child 

Rowland Green 

Dr. L. S. Campbell's child 

Henry Roberts, Sr. 

Dr. George Kane 

Joseph Randall, Jr.'s wife 

David Stewart's two children 

William Blanchard, Sr. 

Mrs. Elizabetli Blanchard 

William Barker's child 

Luther Beeson's wife 

Miss Libbie Carey 

James Cole, Sr. 

Enoch Robert's child 

David Swaim's wife 

Coral E. Campbell 

Harry Gray's child 

John Barker 

William Pike 

J. Hill Davis' child 

Henry Pierce's little girl 

Mrs. Mary Hockett 

Hannah Moffltt, Sr. 


April — John F. Kemp's child 
June — Lora Davis 
June — Val. Davis' child 
Aug. 26— Richard Rich 


—John Eiley's child 
March 7— Mrs. Ellen Riley 
April —Mrs. Sallie Ann Oliphant 
May —Mr. Toole's child 
May —Isaac W. Harold 
Oct. 27— Verne Davis 


July —Henry Apple's wife 
Sept. —Moses Sander's wife 
— Simeon Hawkins 
— Eebecca Hawkins 


Mch. 29— Ira Haines' child 

— Mrs. Jemima Small 
Mch. 30— John Wilson's wife 
May —Mrs. Rachel Harold 
August —Mrs. Sue Haines 
August — Cyrus Jeffries' child 
Nov. 11— Emmanuel Harold, Sr. 


Jan. 27— Charles O. Deming 
April 19— William Frost 
July — Isaac Carson 
Aug. 20 — Henry Lyons' child 
Nov. 8 — John Moon 

— Chloe Harold 


July 2 — Lillie Bales 
July — Zella Comer's child 

July 24 — Alfred T. Jessup 

Oct. 13— Pinkney Gray's wife 



Mch. 14— Miss Sallie Stewart 
Mch. 25 — Henry Apple's boy 

— Mary Jane Bond 
Aug. — Ira J. Kinzer 
Sept. 4_William Collins 
Sept. 17 — Isaac Bond 

— Oscar Johnson's child 

— Henry Allee 


April 16— Mrs. Julia Hutton 
—Mack Smith's child 
May 4 — Isaac W. Stanton 
May 24— Mrs. Hattie Hawkins 


Feb. 18— Lindley H. Stanley 

July 2 — Glenn Comer 

Oct. 9— Alfred W. Rayl's child 

Oct. 29— Moover's child 

Nov. 1— Rod. Wells' little girl 


Feb. 16— William M. Harold 

Mch. 27— Edgar Farlow 

Aug. 27— Arthur Cox 

Sept. 5— Frank Ballard's child 

IN'ov. 5— Elwood E. Haines 

Dee. 24— William Noblet's child 





-Mrs. Isom Wickersham 



-Charles Frost 



-Fred Stewart 



-Mrs. Jane Bristow 


-Mrs. Joseph Smith 



-Eollin Bond 



-Miss Lydia Patty 



-Mrs. Hannah Carey 


Mch. 13— Harry Hiatt 

April 19— L. J. Patty's child 

Sept. 3 — Lewis Brokaw 

Oct. 12— J. E. Johnson, stone mason 


Feb. 3 — Henry Lyon's child 
Mar. 30— Elizabeth Reynolds 
May 18— Daniel Haworth 
May 20— W. Martin Lanham 
Aug. 24— Wilford Maple -Si—- 
Nov. 19— Miss Ferrie White 
— Harry Craft's child 
Nov. 20 — Miss Glennie Stanley 
Dec. 19— Robert Follet's child 
Dec. 31— N. W. Lamb's little girl 


Jan. 19 — Dr. Milton Carey's boy 
Jan. 25 — Ed. Morrow's child 
Mar. 17 — Isaac Roberts 
April 17 — Mrs. John Middleton 
May 16 — Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Stanton 
Sept. 12— Elihu Jeffries' child 
Sept. 12— Daniel Hiatt' s child 
Oct. 24— Mahlon Haines 



— John Hummer 
Feb. 17— Mrs. Eliza Maple-^ ' '■-- 

— Mrs. Roberts 

]STar. 29— John Phelps 
June 8 — T. J. Johnson 
June 8 — William Frank Carey 
July 28— Miss Jennie Willey 
Aug. 20 — Mrs. Cora Newlin 
Oct. 25 — Mrs. William Brunson 


Jan. 28— Miss Hannah Moffltt 
Feb. — Cyrus Jeffries' child 
Nov. 26— Mrs. Martha Allee 


Mar. 18 — William Pryor 
Aug. 6— Clarence White 
Dec. 15— Mrs. 'Rebecca Newby 


May. 18 — Mrs. Newlin 

May. 18 — Mrs. Hannali J. Harold 
Aug. 9 — Harry Symond's boy 
Aug. 9— Stranger run over by train 
Aug. 24— Mrs. Mollie Wilkinson 
Aug. 25 — William Harrison Johnson 
Sept. 16 — Aaron Cosand 
Sept. 19— Mrs. Flavie Perry 
Oct. 15— Albert Sanders' child 
Nov. 24 — Mrs. Ann Stanley 


Jan. 4— Elam Stanley 
Feb. 4 — Mrs. Louisa Bond 
May — Albert Jeffries' child 
N^ov. 3— Mrs. Rebecca Roberts 
Nov. 16— Ed. E. Small's little girl 


Jan. 9— Mrs. Mary West 

Mar. 2 — Mrs. Martha Haworth 

Mar. 3— Mrs. Elizabeth Brunson 

Mar. 22— Mrs. Martha Carey 

April 21— John Middleton 

April 25 — ^Mrs. Elizabeth Wilkinson 

— Albert Sanders' child 
July —Mr. Shearer's boy 
August — Miss Lena Brunson 
— Pleasant Hiatt 
— Rev. McFarland's child 
Nov. 13— Alpheus N. Farlow 


Feb. 3— Harrison Johnson's wife 

March 7— Lo. Small 

May 13— Mrs. Margaret Stewart 

— Mrs. Jane Haworth 
May 31— Mrs. Mary Carey 
July 20— Mrs. Elizabeth Peele 
Dec. 30— Samuel P. Michener 


March 8— Mr. Prim 

May 5— Thomas West 
Sept. 23— Frank H. King 
Nov. 10— Edgar Brown's child 


Jan. 27— Elmer Michener 
Feb. 22— Mrs. Mary Minting- 
April 12 — Mrs. Samuel Adams 
April 18 — Eaymond Sanders 
April 20— Miss Rhoda Moffltt 
May 15— Eddie Farlow 
June 9 — Mrs. Drusilla Wilson 
July 1— Mrs. Rebecca Morris 
Aug. 17 — Hiram Minting 
Oct. — Mrs. Sarah Cosand 
Oct. 21— Moses Sanders 
Nov. 7— Forest Sanders 
Dec. 6 — Miss Susie Robertson 
Dec, 16— Charles Perisho 


Feb. 6— Gideon Newby 
Feb. 27— Alexander Jeffries 
Mar. 28 — William J. Hawkins 
June 19— Mrs. Eliza Williamson 
Aug. 4 — Mrs. Phoebe Davenport 
Aug. 31 — William Peele 
Sept. 25— Clark Rayle 

Oct. 14— Mrs. Follet 

Oct. 17— Mrs. West 

Nov. 7— Joseph E. Neal 


Feb. 12— Dr. Calvin W. Cook 
Mar. 17— Mrs. Emma Jeffries 
April 24— Mrs. Lydia Rhoads 
May 1— B. F. Akers 
Sept. 8 — Albert A. Haines 
Nov. 9 — Isaac K. Brokaw 


Jan. 26— Mrs. Mary Chappell 
Feb. 14 — Joshua M. Perisho 
Feb. 27— Miss Eosa Haines 
Mar. 3-J. William Nutt 
Mar. 6— J. William Morrow 

Having- given the above list of the dead of 
Carmel, I will give a partial list of the old pioneers 
and later settlers of the vicinity, who have passed 
away, it being- understood that the good wives of 
those mated are included: 

Alexander Mills, Benjamin Mendenhall, Jacob 
Green, Sr,, Owen Williams, Barnaby Newby, Jonas 
Hoover, Johnson Gibson, Ezekiel Clampitt, Stephen 
Hinshaw, Richard Clampitt, William Stubs, Jacob 
Cook, Thomas Charles, Thomas Mills, Charles Lane. 
Walter Thornburg, Ezekiel Wilson, George Gibson, 
William Comer, John Hunt, John Kinzer, Peter Wise, 
James Mendenhall, Zimri Cook, Isaac Rich, Eli 
Phelps, Silas Moffitt, Steven Comer, George Davis, 
George West, Joseph Wilson, William Wilkinson, Sr,, 
Asaph Hiatt, Ornon Bond, Samuel Carey, Sr., Nathan 
Harold, William Hiatt, Joseph Green, Zenas Carey, Sr, , 
Samuel Campbell, John Lanham, David Wilkinson, 
Jonathan Evans, William Murphy, Stephen Macy, 
Darias Power, Captain Todd, Nathan Davis, James 
Williamson, Levi H. Cook, William Slater, Thomas 
Harvey, Joseph White, Bohan Harvey, Thomas Sy- 
mons, Enos Mills, Enos Davis, Sr,, John Thomas, 
Solomon Hiatt, Elias Johnson, John Pierce, Samuel 


Stafford, John Baron, Thomas Hazel, Isaac Coppock, 
Eli Johnson, Andy Mills, Henry Cruse, Robert Moul- 
ton, Eli Hockett, Samuel Wilson, Isaac Harold, Sr., 
John Hiatt, Joseph W. Macy, Jonathan Carey, Zebu- 
Ion Mendenhall, John Appleg^ate, Ebenezar Apple- 
g-ate, Sr., Joseph Rich, Samuel Harold, Sr., Barnaby 
Frost, Henry Wilson, Thomas Lightfoot, Moses Rich, 
John Metsker, Thomas Powell, John Manlove, Joseph 
Hussey, Daniel Benson, John Lamb, William Rooker, 
John West, Moses Puckett, Jirah Smith, James G. 
McShane, Benjamin Harold, Emri Hunt, Stephen 
Sharp, Burg-ess Lamb, Elias Harvey, Chas. Wilson, Sr. 
Wm. Lindley, Henry Lamb, Levi Haines, Sr., Jonathan 
Wilson, Samuel Cox, James Nutt, Sr., Samuel Bond, 
Andrew Harold, Charles Myers, Sr., Amos H. Eskew,- 
Erastus Hodg-en, Simon Davis, Samuel Bales, Isaac 
W. Rayl, William Macy, Pinckney Gray, Georg-e 
Stanley, Samuel Rooker, Isaac Wells, John Newby, 
Eli Small Sr., Thomas Carey Sr., Evan Jessup, 
William Oliphant, James Clark, Nathan Newby, Macy 
Bond, John Lancaster, Sr., Franklin Hall, Sr., James 
Hamar, William Jessup, Absalom Harold, Paris 
Harrison, Isaac Jeffries, Sr., Samuel Smith, Freeman 
Farley, James Harold, Noah Stafford, Samuel Small, 
John Dauson, John C. Jessup, William Reynolds, 
Sylvester Brunson, Jared Patten, John W. Crews, 
Dr. J. S. Losay, Joseph Loyd, Sr., Charles Huffman, 
Sr., Henry W. Henley, Riley Bond, Charles W. 
Mofiitt, John Gilpin, Ellis W. Jessup, Pleasant Nance, 
Bethel Dunning-, Elijah Thornburg-, Herbert Lee, 
Joseph Bond, Ezekiel Thornburg-, Dr. L. S. Campbell, 
Joshua Binford, James Stanton, Samuel Knig-ht, 
Albert Randall, Henry Pierce, Cyrus Carey, Josiah 


Stanley, Calvin Harvey, David Parquhar, Albert 
Ellis, Madison Richardson, Jonah Fertig-, T. J. Apple- 
gate, John E. Wicker, Joel Day, Joseph Gray, John 
Kellam, Elam Stanley, Isaac Wrig-ht, William* H. 
Hedg-ecock, Nathan Wilson, John H. Gray, Hamilton 
Gray, Seth Green, Sr., Joel Phelps, Henry Gibson, 
John Green, Clarkson T. Cook, Lemuel Carey, Sr., 
Christopher West, Thomas Rich, Isaac Carey, Thomas 
West, Sr., Ira Mendenhall, Thomas Hawkins, Benja- 
min West, James Burroug^hs, Jesse West, Richard 
Georg-e, Peter Wise, John Todd, John Florer, Abner 
Atkinson, Barnaby Todd, Thomas Hinshaw, J. Wilk, 
Rooker, John Dunn, Salathiel Lamb, Job Smith, 
Joseph P. Cook, Robert Todd, Thomas Campbell, 
Cyrus Cook, Jehu Hawkins, Silas Wise, Jesse Small, 
Benjamin Chappell, Jesse Georg-e, Silas Beeson, J. E. 
King", Howell Thomas, Enos Noblet, Isaac Michener, 
Thomas Todd, James M. Hanes, Hezekiah Collins, 
Timothy Smith, Henry C. George, Nathan Stanley, 
Isaac Newby, Absalom Elliott, John Smith, Jesse 
Cook, Richard Power, Carey Mendenhall, Hinchman 
Haines, John Burroug'hs, George Myers, Elihu Ran- 
dall, Joseph Myers, Henderson Slater, Abram Jessup, 
Harmon Cox, Stephen Hiatt, William Comer, Benja- 
min Wells, 

The above is a long list, they have all g"one to 
the g"reat beyond, to sleep the sleep that knows no 
waking", till the resurrection morn. Let us hope for 
the best for them and all the countless dead who 
have preceded them.